Symplocarpus

Salisbury ex Nuttall in W. P. C. Barton

in W. P. C. Barton,Veg. Mater. Med. U.S. 1: 124. 1817.

Common names: Skunk-cabbage tabac-du-diable chou puant
Etymology: Greek symplokos, connected, and karpos, fruit, in reference to the infructescence
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 22. Treatment on page 132.

Herbs, wetland or subterrestrial. Rhizomes vertical. Leaves appearing after flowers, several, erect, clustered, erect; petiole equal to or shorter than blade; blade green to dark green, simple, not peltate, oblong to ovate, base truncate or cordate, apex acute to obtuse; primary-veins lateral, branching apically. Inflorescences: peduncle partly underground, much shorter than leaves, apex not swollen; spathe yellowish green to dark red-purple, usually spotted or striped with both, open only apically at maturity, enclosing spadix; spadix ovoid to globose. Flowers bisexual; perianth present. Fruits embedded in enlarged spongy spadix, dark purple-green to dark redbrown. Seeds 1, mucilage absent. x = 15.

Distribution

ne North America and ne Asia

Discussion

Symplocarpus is one of the earliest plants to flower in spring in northeastern North America, sometimes with spathes emerging through snow on the ground. Because inflorescences are developed during the previous summer, flowering can occur during any warmer than normal weather throughout winter. The spadices of both Asian and American plants produce heat during flowering and can reach temperatures up to 25°C above ambient air temperature (R. M. Knutson 1972; S. Uemura et al. 1993). These elevated temperatures probably play a role in pollination and in facilitating floral development at cold temperatures.

Species 1 or 2 (1 in the flora).

... more about "Symplocarpus"
Sue A. Thompson +
Salisbury ex Nuttall in W. P. C. Barton +
cordate;truncate +
not peltate +  and simple +
pinnate or palmate-netted +  and parallel +
green +  and dark green +
oblong;ovate +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (?) +
Skunk-cabbage +, tabac-du-diable +  and chou puant +
underground +
ne North America and ne Asia +
Greek symplokos, connected, and karpos, fruit, in reference to the infructescence +
pistillate +, staminate +  and sessile +
dark purple-green +  and dark redbrown +
connate +  and distinct +
clustered +, alternate +  and solitary +
with sterile flowers +  and naked +
underground +
in W. P. C. Barton,Veg. Mater. Med. U.S. +
barab1982a +, shull1925a +  and williams1919a +
ovoid +  and globose +
enlarged +
yellowish green +  and dark red-purple usually spotted or striped +
deciduous +  and persistent +
embedded in spadix +  and sessile +
connate +  and distinct +
discoid +  and capitate +
hemispheric +
Symplocarpus +
floating +  and emergent +