Thalia dealbata

Fraser

Thalia dealbata [plate]. 1794.

Common names: Powdery thalia
IllustratedEndemic
Synonyms: Thalia barbata Small
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 22.

Plants 0.7–2.5 m. Leaves: basal 2–5, cauline 0; sheath pruinose, glabrous; petiole pruinose, glabrous; pulvinus yellowish-brown to red or purple-brown, 0.6–2.5 cm, glabrous; blade ovate, occasionally narrowly elliptic, 17–55 × 7–22 cm, firm, stiff-papery, base rounded, rarely obtuse, apex acuminate, abaxial surface pruinose, appearing whitish, glabrous, adaxial surface pilose to nearly villous in basal 0.5–1 cm of blade, including midrib, at apex, and along margin of broader side. Inflorescences erect, tightly clustered, compact array, 9–31 × 7–18 cm; scapes 0.5–1.9 m; rachis pruinose; internodes 2–3 mm; bracts markedly pruinose, appearing whitish, redbrown to red-purple beneath waxy coating, orbiculate, strongly cupped, 0.8–1.5 cm, stiff, leathery, glabrous. Flowers: sepals 1.5–2.5 mm; outer staminode dark purple, 12–15 × ca. 6 mm; callose staminode base white to pale-purple, margins and apex dark purple, apical rim reduced, petallike. Fruits nearly globose to broadly obovoid, 9–12 × 8–11 mm. Seeds dark-brown to black, nearly globose to broadly ellipsoid, 8–10 × 7–9.2n = 12 (in cultivation).


Phenology: Flowering late spring–early fall (May–Sep); fruiting summer–fall (Jun–Oct).
Habitat: Coastal plain in swamps, streamsides, roadside ditches, and ponds

Distribution

V22 70-distribution-map.jpg

Ark., Ga., Ill., La., Miss., Mo., Okla., S.C., Tex.

Discussion

Thalia dealbata is the only species of Marantaceae endemic to North America and the only one not found in the tropics. Its sister species, T. multiflora Horkel ex Körnicke, is similarly restricted, but to the southernmost part of the range, southern Brazsil to Uruguay. It is possible that our species is the result of an early, chance long-distance dispersal event from a South American population. This might partially explain why the plants are autogamous in spite of the elaborate floral mechanism.

Thalia dealbata is grown as an ornamental in tropical and temperate gardens and is hardy as far north as Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Vancouver, British Columbia when the rhizome is submersed during winter.

Selected References

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Thalia dealbata"
pilose +  and nearly villous +
prominent +
dark purple +
reduced +
Helen Kennedy +
Fraser +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
obtuse;rounded +
plain green +
17 cm170 mm <br />0.17 m <br /> (55 cm550 mm <br />0.55 m <br />) +
? (?) +  and ? (?) +
7cm;22cm +
redbrown +  and red-purple +
deciduous +
subtending +
arching +  and upright +
elongate +
Powdery thalia +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
subequal +  and strongly unequal +
Ark. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, La. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, Okla. +, S.C. +  and Tex. +
pale;dark purple +
self-fertilizing +
herbaceous;leathery +
9mm +  and 12mm +
nearly globose +  and broadly obovoid +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br />) +
nearly globose +  and ellipsoid +
Coastal plain in swamps, streamsides, roadside ditches, and ponds +
spikelike +  and headlike +
medial +  and subterminal +
flaplike +  and fingerlike +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
differentiated +
dark purple +
1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br /> (?) +
3-carpellate +
differentiated +
Flowering late spring–early fall (May–Sep) +  and fruiting summer–fall (Jun–Oct). +
Thalia dealbata +
yellowish-brown +  and red or purple-brown +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
atee1915a +, bentley-a +, hartgerink1978a +, kennedy1992a +, koch1857a +, mahanty1970a +, miege1960a +, sat1960a +, shuey1975a +, simmonds1954a +, suessenguth1921a +  and titford1812a +
enlarged +
50 cm500 mm <br />0.5 m <br /> (190 cm1,900 mm <br />1.9 m <br />) +
nearly globose +  and broadly ellipsoid +
persistent +
distinct +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (?) +  and 0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (?) +
membranous +
differentiated +
not auriculate +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
petal-like +
white +  and pale-purple +
fingerlike +  and cucullate +
cup-shaped +
elongate +
Thalia barbata +
Thalia dealbata +
species +