Waltheria indica

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 2: 673. 1753.

Common names: Sleepy morning basora prieta hierba del soldado malva del monte malva malva blanca uhaloa
Weedy
Synonyms: Waltheria americana Linnaeus
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 6. Treatment on page 215. Mentioned on page 212, 213, 214.

Plants branched or nearly simple, to 7–12 dm, indument variable, tomentose to short-woolly, sparsely to densely pubescent. Stems to 8 mm wide, nodes even or extended to 0.5 mm. Leaves: stipules linear-triangular, 3–6 mm; petiole 2.5–5 cm × 1–4 mm; blade concolor or discolor, drying olive, ovate-oblong to lanceolate, to 7 (–10) × 5 cm, base subcordate to obtuse, margins crenate-serrate, serrate, irregularly serrate, or crenate-dentate, apex narrowly rounded, obtuse, or subacute, surfaces tomentose or pubescent, trichome rays 0.4–1 mm, and sparsely hispidulous, slightly scabrous or not. Inflorescences subsessile, or on short pedunclelike lateral branches to 3.6 cm, glomerules 5–20 along stems, compact, often dense, sympodial, at times lax clusters with terminal flower and subtending dichasia; bracteoles free or with 1 adherent to stipule forming an elliptic 2-cuspidate foliole at glomerule base, bracts subequal, lanceolate or linear, 0.3–1.5 mm wide, apex acute, entire. Flowers sessile or subsessile; calyx 4.2–setose apically; styles 0.9–1.7 × 0.1–0.3 mm, lateral or excentric, broader and stellate-hirsute distal to base; stigmas 12-branched, plumose (1.2–1.4 × 0.5–0.8 mm, column 0.9–1.2 mm, branches to 0.7 mm) or dissolute-penicillate (0.6–1.2 × 0.7–1.6 mm, column 0.4–0.7 mm, branches to 1.1 mm). Capsules oblique, obconic, or obovoid, 2.1–3 × 1.5–2 mm, walls with endocarp corneous for 1+ mm from apex, sometimes merely membranous along one or both valve margins laterally; partially apically dehiscent to 2-valvate. Seeds dark-brown, obovoid or obconic, 2–2.2 × 1.2–1.5 × 1–1.3 mm, smooth. 2n = 24, 26 (India), 40 (Africa).


Phenology: Flowering and fruiting year-round.
Habitat: Ruderal communities, disturbed scrublands, scrub hummocks, pine-oak sandhills, dunes, open savannas, dry coastal hummocks, sandy or shell soil
Elevation: 0–1000 m

Distribution

V6 383-distribution-map.jpg

Ala., Ariz., Fla., Tex., Mexico, West Indies, Bermuda, Central America, South America, Asia, Africa, Atlantic Islands, Indian Ocean Islands, Pacific Islands, Australia

Discussion

Robert Brown (in J. H. Tuckey 1818) was the first to unequivocally synonymize the names Waltheria americana and W. indica published by Linnaeus in the same work. Brown adopted the name W. indica for the combined species and thus gave priority to that name.

Waltheria indica in the narrow sense is globally in need of revision, being very complex and problematic. Heterostyly has been reported for some populations of W. indica in India (B. Bahadur et al. 1996). Flora area populations have the pistil subequal (0.2–0.5 mm longer) and more or less homostylous, or up to 1 mm longer than stamens, more like monomorphic pin floral morphology. Multiple introductions are apparent from the variability seen within the flora area. Apparent hybrids of W. indica with other species are found in Arizona, Florida, and Texas.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Waltheria indica"
40 +, 26 +  and 24 +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br />) +
ovate +  and oblong +
Janice G. Saunders +
Linnaeus +
subcordate +  and obtuse +
7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
olive +, discolor +  and concolor +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
ovate-oblong +  and lanceolate +
subtending +
linear +  and lanceolate +
subequal +
0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
with 1 adherent +  and free +
septicidal +, loculicidal +  and dehiscence +
0.21 cm2.1 mm <br />0.0021 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
obovoid;obconic;obovoid;obconic;oblique +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
5-40-flowered +, paniculiform +  and glomerulate +
Sleepy morning +, basora prieta +, hierba del soldado +, malva del monte +, malva +, malva blanca +  and uhaloa +
Ala. +, Ariz. +, Fla. +, Tex. +, Mexico +, West Indies +, Bermuda +, Central America +, South America +, Asia +, Africa +, Atlantic Islands +, Indian Ocean Islands +, Pacific Islands +  and Australia +
0–1000 m +
sparse;copious +
subsessile +  and sessile +
sweet-smelling +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
septicidal +, loculicidal +  and dehiscence +
oblique +, obovoid +  and obconic +
Ruderal communities, disturbed scrublands, scrub hummocks, pine-oak sandhills, dunes, open savannas, dry coastal hummocks, sandy or shell soil +
connate +  and distinct +
obtriangular +, oblanceolate +, oblong +  and obovate +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (3.6 cm36 mm <br />0.036 m <br />) +
distichous +  and alternate +
crenate-dentate +, serrate +  and crenate-serrate +
crenate;serrate;crenate;serrate +
extended +
not +  and stipitate +
obconic +  and obovoid +
late-deciduous +
5 +  and 4 +
2.5cm;5cm +
Flowering and fruiting year-round. +
septicidal +, loculicidal +  and dehiscence +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.13 cm1.3 mm <br />0.0013 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.22 cm2.2 mm <br />0.0022 m <br />) +
obconic +  and obovoid +
granulate +
0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
0mm;8mm +
dissolute-penicillate +  and plumose +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
0.9mm +  and 1.7mm +
excentric +  and lateral +
stellate-hirsute +
cylindric +
broader +, 0.1mm +  and 0.3mm +
pubescent +  and tomentose +
Waltheria americana +
Waltheria indica +
Waltheria +
species +
0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
membranous +
simple +  and branched +
prostrate +  and erect +
13 +, 10 +, 7 +, 6 +  and 5 +