Zea mays subsp. mays

Common names: Corn Indian corn Maize Mais
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 25. Treatment on page 701.

Culms (1) 2-4 (6) m tall, (1) 2-5 cm thick. Blades 50-90 cm long, 3-12 cm wide. Pistillate inflorescences spikes, 15-25 (40) cm long, 2-5 (10) cm thick, cylindrical, tightly and permanently enclosed in several to many leaf-sheaths and a large prophyll, with 8-24 or more rows of paired spikelets on a thickened, strongly vascularized, tough rachis (cob), not disarticulating at maturity; fruitcases not developed, rachis internodes fused into the extra-vascular cylinder, glumes reduced, shallow. Caryopses 60-1000+, exposed and naked. Staminate panicles with a polystichous central axis and non-disarticulating branches; central axes usually much denser and thicker than the usually distichous lateral branches, these lacking abscission layers. 2n = 20.

Discussion

Zea mays subsp. mays is the familiar domesticated corn (or maize), from which around 400 indigenous races and many different kinds of cultivars have been developed. It is an obligate cultigen, unable to persist outside of cultivation because the caryopses are permanently attached to the rachis and enclosed by the subtending leaf sheaths. Supersweet cultivars have a double recessive gene that delays the conversion of sugar to starch; flint corns have unusually hard endosperm; and waxy cultivars have endosperm with an unusually high level of proteins and oils. Popcorns have a core of soft, relatively moist endosperm surrounded by hard endosperm. The grains "pop" when heat causes the moisture of the inner endosperm to vaporize.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"decumbent" is not a number."elongated" is not a number."thin" is not a number.

... more about "Zea mays subsp. mays"
anatomy +  and kranz +
Hugh H. litis +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
disarticulating +
keeled +  and rounded +
pseudopetiolate +  and branching +
divergent +  and parallel +
intravaginal +, extravaginal +, branching +  and basal +
swelling +
non-radiate +  and radiate +
well-developed +
50 cm500 mm <br />0.5 m <br /> (90 cm900 mm <br />0.9 m <br />) +
usually linear +  and lanceolate occasionally ovate +
reduced +
3cm;12cm +
non-disarticulating +
spikelike +
reduced +
60 +  and 1000 +
subspherical +  and dorsally compressed +
usually much denser and thicker +
Corn +, Indian corn +, Maize +  and Mais +
branching +  and monopodial +
several to many +  and solitary +
purple +  and reddish +
200 cm2,000 mm <br />2 m <br /> (400 cm4,000 mm <br />4 m <br />) +
ascending +  and erect +
7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br /> (600 cm6,000 mm <br />6 m <br />) +
woody +  and succulent +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
extra-vascular +
Ga. +, Va. +, Conn. +, R.I. +, Calif. +, Idaho +, Oreg. +, Wash. +, Ala. +, Ark. +, Colo. +, Iowa +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Kans. +, Ky. +, La. +, Mass. +, Md. +, Maine +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mo. +, Miss. +, Mont. +, N.C. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Mex. +, N.Y. +, Ohio +, Pa. +, Puerto Rico +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Utah +, Virgin Islands +, Vt. +, Wis. +, W.Va. +, Wyo. +, Ont. +, Que. +, Fla. +, Nebr. +, Ariz. +  and Nev. +
capillary +
sometimes longer +
concealing +
2 +  and 1 +
compressed +  and terete +
5-14(28)-veined +
shallow +
stiff +  and flexible +
shorter or longer +
subtending +
reduced +
membranous +  and chartaceous +
uncinate +
staminate +, unbranched +, pedunculate +  and pistillate +
distichous +  and paniculate +
pedunculate +  and multiple-stalked +
4cm +  and 30cm +
bisexual +  and unisexual +
1cm +  and 10cm +
not disarticulating +  and pistillate +
solid +  and hollow +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.82 cm8.2 mm <br />0.0082 m <br />) +
not disarticulating +
photosynthetic +
not aromatic +
coriaceous +
membranous +
inconspicuous +
complex +  and simple +
concealed +  and prominent +
sessile-pedicellate +  and subsessile +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (25 cm250 mm <br />0.25 m <br />) +
fused +  and free +
dry +  and fleshy +
elongate +
8 (?) +  and 24 (?) +
bladeless +  and open +
pedunculate +  and pistillate +
polystichous +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (?) +  and 30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br /> (?) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (?) +  and 10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (?) +
staminate +, sessile +, pistillate +, disarticulating +  and pedicellate +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br />) +
sterile +  and bisexual +
usually smaller +  and reduced +
2.5mm +  and 5mm +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
fused +  and free +
filamentous +
dome--shaped +  and triangular +
Gramineae +
exposed +  and concealed +
Zea mays subsp. mays +
Zea mays +
subspecies +
membranous +
sessile-pedicellate +
aquatic +  and terrestrial +