Acaena novae-zelandiae

Kirk

Trans. & Proc. New Zealand Inst. 3: 177. 1871. 1871

Common names: Biddy biddy
IllustratedIntroducedWeedy
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 9. Treatment on page 324.

Plants creeping or stoloniferous. Stems to 15 dm, 1.5–2 mm diam.; branches erect, short, leafy. Leaves: stipules 3–5-fid; petiole 0.3–1 cm; blade 2–11 cm, leaflets 4–7 per side, bright shining green, oblong or elliptic, 4–17 mm, margins crenate-dentate, teeth 8–15, smooth adaxially, abaxial surface glaucescent, usually pilose on veins and margins, adaxial sparsely pilose. Scapes axillary, 10–15 cm, 1–2 mm diam., smooth, lacking both cauline leaves and multicelled hairs. Inflorescences 80–100-flowered, globose heads (9 mm diam. in flower, 20–35 mm diam. in fruit); bracteoles linear, pilose. Flowers 3.5 mm diam.; sepals 4, triangular, 1.5 mm, abaxially pilose, adaxially glabrous; stamens 2 (or 3), filaments 1.5–2 mm, anthers white; stigma white, fimbriate. Fruiting hypanthia obtriangular, 3.5–5 mm diam., surfaces sericeous, 4-angled, each angle with a slender spine at apex, red, sometimes lemon yellow, 7–12 mm, spines with 4–10 translucent, retrorse barbs 0.5 mm at apex, surfaces glabrous. 2n = 42 (New Zealand).


Phenology: Flowering May–Jun.
Habitat: Roadsides and paths, forest edges, logged lands, lawns, among cultivated ground covers and waste grounds
Elevation: 0–200 m

Distribution

Introduced; Calif., Oreg., Pacific Islands (New Guinea), Pacific Islands (New Zealand), Australia, also in Europe (England), also in Europe (Ireland)

Discussion

Herbarium records of Acaena novae-zelandiae are from the coastal ranges in California, Humboldt and Sonoma counties, around San Francisco and Monterey, and in Oregon.

Acaena novae-zelandiae has noxious weed status in the United States. The name A. anserinifolia (J. R. Forster & G. Forster) Druce was misapplied to A. novae-zelandiae by P. A. Munz (1968), this being the first published record of the taxon from North America.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"dm" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property."dm" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Acaena novae-zelandiae"
lemon yellow +  and red +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
Bryony Macmillan +
compound +  and simple +
opposite +  and alternate +
15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br /> (18 cm180 mm <br />0.18 m <br />) +
spatulate +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (11 cm110 mm <br />0.11 m <br />) +
coriaceous +
free +  and distinct +
Biddy biddy +
Calif. +, Oreg. +, Pacific Islands (New Guinea) +, Pacific Islands (New Zealand) +, Australia +, also in Europe (England) +  and also in Europe (Ireland) +
not +  and aggregated +
0–200 m +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br /> (?) +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
not +  and aggregated +
spindle--shaped +
Roadsides and paths, forest edges, logged lands, lawns, among cultivated ground covers and waste grounds +
globose +
gray +  and redbrown +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
glabrous +  and tomentose +
angled +, obconic +, globose +, oblong +, ovoid +  and obtriangular +
axillary +  and terminal +
crassinucellate +
persistent +
shining +  and bright +
elliptic +  and oblong +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br />) +
incised +, revolute +  and flat +
inferior +  and superior +
clustered +, biseriate +  and superposed +
0 (?) +  and 4 (?) +
free +  and distinct +
5 +  and 4 +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
Flowering May–Jun. +
adnate +, free +, connate +  and distinct +
? (?) +  and ? (?) +
Trans. & Proc. New Zealand Inst. +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
not arillate +
persistent +
free +  and distinct +
glabrous +  and pilose +
triangular +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (?) +
Illustrated +, Introduced +  and Weedy +
glandular +  and eglandular +
glabrous +  and pubescent +
free +  and distinct +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
1 +  and 20 +
fimbriate +
red +  and white +
deciduous +
distinct +
basal +, lateral +, subterminal +  and terminal +
fimbriate +
glabrous +  and sericeous +
Acaena novae-zelandiae +
species +
8 +  and 15 +
inconspicuous +
enlarged +  and small +
0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +