Acaena

Mutis ex Linnaeus

Mant. Pl., 145, 200. 1771. 1771

Etymology: Greek akaina, thorn, alluding to barbed spines arising from wall of hypanthium
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 9. Treatment on page 323. Mentioned on page 19, 312.

Herbs, perennial, 1–15 dm diam.; from branched, woody caudex or stoloniferous. Stems 1–20, creeping and rooting or suberect, basally woody, clad in old leaf-bases, glabrous or sparsely pilose. Leaves persistent, basal and/or cauline; stipules absent or persistent, adnate to petiole, free portion ovate to obovate, deeply 2–5-fid, or linear, margins entire; petiole present; blade spatulate, [1–] 2–15 [–18] cm, herbaceous, leaflets 4–10 per side, opposite, ovate, oblong, or elliptic, margins flat or revolute, incised or pinnatisect, dentate or entire, surfaces hairy or glabrous. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, [4–] 15–100-flowered, spikes or globose heads; peduncles present or absent; bracts absent; bracteoles present. Pedicels present. Flowers 3.5–6 mm diam.; hypanthium obtriangular, ovoid, or obconic, 3.5–6 mm diam., spiny [or winged or neither], tomentose or glabrous; sepals 4–5 [–6], spreading, elliptic or triangular; petals 0; stamens 2–4 [–6], longer than sepals; carpels 1 [or 2], styles white or red, fimbriate. Fruits achenes, 1 [–2], spindle-shaped; hypanthium persistent, enclosing achenes, gray to redbrown, ovoid, oblong, globose, or obconic, 3–6 mm diam., hardened, sometimes winged, distinctly or obscurely angled with a single spine at apex of each of 4 angles, or covered with 10–20 [–50] spines [or without spines], spines usually bearing retrorse hairs or barbs at apices, pubescent or glabrous, eglandular or glandular; sepals persistent, spreading. x = 21.

Distribution

w United States, Mexico, South America (Argentina), South America (Chile), s Africa (Cape Province), Atlantic Islands (Gough Island), Atlantic Islands (South Georgia), Atlantic Islands (Tristan da Cunha), Indian Ocean Islands (Kerguelen), Indian Ocean Islands (Prince Edward Island), Pacific Islands (Hawaii), Pacific Islands (New Guinea), Pacific Islands (New Zealand), Australia, in Europe (England), in Europe (Ireland)

Discussion

Species ca. 45 (3 in the flora).

Selected References

None.

Key

1 Inflorescences interrupted spikes; fruiting hypanthia bearing 10–20 spines 1–3 mm; plants decumbent to suberect; leaflets pinnatisect. Acaena pinnatifida
1 Inflorescences globose heads; fruiting hypanthia 4-angled, each angle with a spine at apex (arising distally) 7–15 mm; plants creeping or stoloniferous; leaflets dentate > 2
2 Fruiting hypanthia: spines 7–12 mm, without subsidiary spines on angles; stems 1.5–2 mm diam.; leaflet adaxial surfaces bright shining green, smooth, abaxial surfaces glaucescent. Acaena novae-zelandiae
2 Fruiting hypanthia: spines 9–15 mm, with subsidiary spines on angles; stems 2–3 mm diam.; leaflet adaxial surfaces glossy green, rugulose, abaxial surfaces whitish with uneven wax layer. Acaena pallida

"dm" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Acaena"
Bryony Macmillan +
Mutis ex Linnaeus +
compound +  and simple +
opposite +  and alternate +
15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br /> (18 cm180 mm <br />0.18 m <br />) +
spatulate +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
coriaceous +
free +  and distinct +
w United States +, Mexico +, South America (Argentina) +, South America (Chile) +, s Africa (Cape Province) +, Atlantic Islands (Gough Island) +, Atlantic Islands (South Georgia) +, Atlantic Islands (Tristan da Cunha) +, Indian Ocean Islands (Kerguelen) +, Indian Ocean Islands (Prince Edward Island) +, Pacific Islands (Hawaii) +, Pacific Islands (New Guinea) +, Pacific Islands (New Zealand) +, Australia +, in Europe (England) +  and in Europe (Ireland) +
not +  and aggregated +
Greek akaina, thorn, alluding to barbed spines arising from wall of hypanthium +
0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
not +  and aggregated +
spindle--shaped +
globose +
gray +  and redbrown +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
glabrous +  and tomentose +
angled +, obconic +, globose +, oblong +, ovoid +  and obtriangular +
[4-]15-100-flowered +
axillary +  and terminal +
crassinucellate +
persistent +
elliptic +, oblong +  and ovate +
entire +, dentate +  and pinnatisect +
incised +, revolute +  and flat +
inferior +  and superior +
clustered +, biseriate +  and superposed +
0 (?) +  and 4 (?) +
free +  and distinct +
5 +  and 4 +
adnate +, free +, connate +  and distinct +
? (?) +  and ? (?) +
not arillate +
persistent +
free +  and distinct +
triangular +  and elliptic +
glandular +  and eglandular +
glabrous +  and pubescent +
free +  and distinct +
1 +  and 20 +
red +  and white +
deciduous +
distinct +
basal +, lateral +, subterminal +  and terminal +
fimbriate +
glabrous +  and hairy +
Rosaceae tribe Agrimonieae +
inconspicuous +
enlarged +  and small +