Anemone multifida

Poiret in J. Lamarck et al.

in J.Lamarck et al., Encycl., suppl. 1: 364. 1810.

Common names: Cut-leaved anemone anémone multifide
Illustrated
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 3.

Aerial shoots 10-70 cm, from caudices, caudices ascending to vertical. Basal leaves 3-6 (-10), 1-2-ternate; petiole (2-) 4-10 (-14) cm; terminal leaflet petiolulate to ±sessile, broadly and irregularly rhombic to obovate, (1.5-) 2.5-4.5 (-5.5) × (1-) 3-10 cm, base narrowly cuneate, margins incised on distal 1/3, apex broadly acute to nearly obtuse; surfaces abaxially villous-silky, hispid to villous, or sparsely long-pilose, adaxially glabrous, nearly glabrous, villous-silky, or hispid to villous; lateral leaflets (2-) 3×-parted; ultimate segments (1.5-) 2-3.5 (-5) mm wide. Inflorescences 2-7-flowered cymes or flowers solitary; peduncle villous, pilose, or hispid to villous; involucral-bracts usually 3-5, occasionally 2 in secondary involucres, 1-2-tiered, ternate, occasionally incompletely ternate, ±similar to basal leaves, greatly reduced, bases distinct; terminal leaflet petiolulate to ±sessile, broadly and irregularly rhombic to obovate, (1.5-) 3-4 (-5) × 0.5-1 (-2) cm, base narrowly cuneate, margins incised on distal 1/3, apex broadly acute to nearly obtuse, surfaces abaxially hispid to villous, villous-silky, or sparsely long-pilose, adaxially glabrous, nearly glabrous, hispid to villous, or villous-silky; lateral leaflets (2-) 3×-parted or lobed, lobes frequently unequal; ultimate lobes 1.5-3 (-4.3) mm wide. Flowers: sepals 5-9, green to yellow, blue, purple, red, or occasionally white, or abaxially blue, red, yellow and red, or purple, or tinged purple, adaxially white, yellow, yellow and red, blue, or tinged purple, ovate to oblong, 5-17 × (3.5-) 5-7 (-9) mm, abaxially hairy, adaxially glabrous; stamens 50-80. Heads of achenes spheric; pedicel 6-15 (-23) cm. Achenes: body irregularly ellipsoid or elliptic, flat, 3-4 × 1.5-2 mm, not winged, tomentose, woolly, or villous; beak ±straight, distally recurved or strongly hooked, 1-6 mm, glabrous.

Distribution

Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., N.W.T., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), Ont., Que., Sask., Yukon, Alaska, Ariz., Calif., Colo., Idaho, Maine, Mich., Minn., Mont., N.Dak., N.Mex., N.Y., Nebr., Nev., Oreg., S.Dak., Utah, Vt., Wash., Wis., Wyo., South America

Discussion

Varieties 4 (4 in the flora).

G.Boraiah and M.Heimburger (1964) conducted an extensive cytotaxonomic analysis of this wide-ranging and extremely variable species and its relatives. The present treatment takes a broader view of the species (and its variation) and recognizes fewer entities. In addition, Anemone tetonensis and A. stylosa, plants treated as closely related species by G.Boraiah and M.Heimburger, are treated here as varieties of A. multifida.

Early-season plants of Anemone multifida var. multifida have solitary flowers and will key to var. saxicola. Anemone multifida var. tetonensis and especially var. saxicola might be based on characteristics that are influenced primarily by environment; further study is warranted.

Native Americans used Anemone multifida (no varieties specified) medicinally as an antirheumatic, cold remedy, nosebleed cure, and general panacea, as well as a means of killing lice and fleas (D. E. Moerman 1986).

Selected References

None.

Key

1 Flowers in cymes; involucral bracts 2-tiered. > 2
1 Flowers solitary; involucral bracts 1-tiered. > 5
2 Beak straight. > 3
2 Beak recurved or hooked. > 4
3 Aerial shoots (30–)40–70 cm; flowers (2–)5–7; bracts silky; sepals ovate or oblong. Anemone multifida var. multifida
3 Aerial shoots (10–)20–40 cm; flowers (1–)2–3; bracts villous; sepals elliptic. Anemone multifida var. saxicola
4 Beak recurved. Anemone multifida var. tetonensis
4 Beak hooked. Anemone multifida var. stylosa
5 Abaxial color of sepals different from adaxial color. > 6
5 Abaxial color of sepals same as adaxial color. > 7
6 Aerial shoots 20–40 cm; achene beak ± straight. Anemone multifida var. saxicola
6 Aerial shoots 10–20(–25) cm; achene beak recurved. Anemone multifida var. tetonensis
7 Sepals blue, purple, or sometimes white; achene beak recurved. Anemone multifida var. tetonensis
7 Sepals purple to red, or green to red; achene beak strongly hooked distally. Anemone multifida var. stylosa

"broadened" is not a number.

... more about "Anemone multifida"
Bryan E. Dutton +, Carl S. Keener +  and Bruce A. Ford +
Poiret in J. Lamarck et al. +
distinct +
cuneate +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
straight +
rudimentary +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
villous +, woolly +  and tomentose +
elliptic;ellipsoid +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
globose;cylindric +
ascending;vertical +
Cut-leaved anemone +  and anémone multifide +
2-7-flowered +
Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, N.B. +, N.W.T. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.) +, Ont. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Yukon +, Alaska +, Ariz. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Idaho +, Maine +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mont. +, N.Dak. +, N.Mex. +, N.Y. +, Nebr. +, Nev. +, Oreg. +, S.Dak. +, Utah +, Vt. +, Wash. +, Wis. +, Wyo. +  and South America +
showy +  and inconspicuous +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (60 cm600 mm <br />0.6 m <br />) +
stalked +, sessile +  and aggregate +
ovoid;obovoid +
spheric +
axillary +  and terminal +
petiolate +, compound +  and simple +
whorled +, opposite +  and alternate +
unequal +
palmate +  and pinnate +
incised;incised +
15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br /> (23 cm230 mm <br />0.23 m <br />) +
6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
hispid +  and villous +
distinct +
conspicuous +
reduced +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (14 cm140 mm <br />0.14 m <br />) +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
in J.Lamarck et al., Encycl., suppl. +
not arillate +  and stalked +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
tinged purple;blue;tinged purple;blue;punct;yellow and red;punct;yellow;white;tinged purple;yellow and red;red;green;yellow blue purple red or occasionally white or abaxially blue +
not persistent +
distinct +
glabrous +  and hairy +
5 +  and 9 +
ovate +  and oblong +
0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (70 cm700 mm <br />0.7 m <br />) +
Illustrated +
persistent +
abaxially hispid;villous villous-silky or sparsely long-pilose adaxially glabrous nearly glabrous hispid +
Anemonastrum +, Anemonidium +, Anemonoides +, Hepatica +, Jurtsevia +  and Pulsatilla +
Anemone multifida +
species +
petiolulate;more or less sessile +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
irregularly rhombic;obovate +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
2-9-flowered +
herbaceous +  and woody +