Ranunculaceae

Jussieu
Common names: Crowfoot Family
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 3. Treatment on page 85.

Herbs, sometimes woody or herbaceous climbers or low shrubs, perennial or annual, often rhizomatous. Stems unarmed. Leaves usually basal and cauline, alternate or sometimes opposite, rarely whorled, simple or variously compound; stipules present or absent; petioles usually present, often proximally sheathing. Leaf-blade undivided or more commonly divided or compound, base cordate, sometimes truncate or cuneate, margins entire, toothed, or incised; venation pinnate or palmate. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, racemes, cymes, umbels, panicles, or spikes, or flowers solitary, flowers pedicellate or sessile. Flowers bisexual, sometimes unisexual, inconspicuous or showy, radially or bilaterally symmetric; sepaloid bracteoles absent; perianth hypogynous; sepals usually imbricate, 3-6 (-20), distinct, often petaloid and colored, occasionally spurred; petals 0-26, distinct (connate in Consolida), plane, cupshaped, funnel-shaped, or spurred, conspicuous or greatly reduced; nectary usually present, rarely absent; stamens 5-many, distinct; anthers dehiscing longitudinally; staminodes absent (except in Aquilegia and Clematis); pistils 1-many; styles present or absent, often persistent in fruit as beak. Fruits achenes, follicles, or rarely utricles, capsules, or berries, often aggregated into globose to cylindric heads. Seeds 1-many per ovary, never stalked, not arillate; endosperm abundant; embryo usually small.

Discussion

Genera ca. 60, species 1700 (22 genera, 284 species in the flora).

The flowers of many species of Ranunculaceae begin to open long before anthesis, while the floral organs are just partly expanded. Only mature flowers with open anthers should be used for determination of diagnostic characteristics (especially measurements).

The literature is inconsistent about the term for the whorl of organs between sepals and stamens; these may be conspicuous and petaloid, or reduced to stalked nectaries, or intermediate between the two states. They have been called petals, honey-leaves, or (when they are inconspicuous) staminodes or nectaries. We follow M. Tamura (1993) and treat as petals all organs between the sepals and stamens, except in Clematis and Aquilegia where they usually bear rudimentary anthers and clearly represent staminodes.

Selected References

None.

Illustrations

 Family TaxonIllustrator 
FNA03 P15 Hydrastis Ranunculus pg 89.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculus acris
Ranunculus pensylvanicus
Hydrastis canadensis
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA03 P17 Ranunculus pg 105.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculus macauleyi
Ranunculus sardous
Ranunculus hebecarpus
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA03 P18 Ranunculus pg 111.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculus cardiophyllus
Ranunculus abortivus
Ranunculus eschscholtzii var. eschscholtzii
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA03 P19 Ranunculus pg 116.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculus pusillus
Ranunculus alismifolius var. lemmonii
Ranunculus glaberrimus var. glaberrimus
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA03 P20 Ranunculus pg 124.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculus hyperboreus
Ranunculus ranunculinus
Ranunculus cymbalaria
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA03 P21 Ranunculus pg 128.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculus cooleyae
Ranunculus andersonii
John Myers
John Myers
FNA03 P22 Ranunculus pg 131.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculus kamtschaticus
Ranunculus pallasii
Ranunculus aquatilis var. aquatilis
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA03 P23 Ranunculus pg 134.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculus lapponicus
Ranunculus hystriculus
Ranunculus testiculatus
Ranunculus ficaria
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA03 P24 Myosurus Trautvetteria pg 137.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Myosurus minimus
Myosurus apetalus var. borealis
Myosurus cupulatus
Myosurus nitidus
Myosurus sessilis
Trautvetteria caroliniensis
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA03 P25 Anemone pg 144.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Anemone patens var. multifida
Anemone canadensis
Anemone richardsonii
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA03 P26 Anemone pg 146.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Anemone narcissiflora var. villosissima
Anemone tuberosa
Anemone parviflora
Anemone berlandieri
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA03 P27 Anemone pg 151.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Anemone multifida var. multifida
Anemone quinquefolia var. quinquefolia
Anemone deltoidea
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA03 P28 Anemone pg 155.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Anemone virginiana var. virginiana
Anemone oregana var. oregana
Anemone americana
Anemone acutiloba
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA03 P29 Clematis pg 162.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Clematis orientalis
Clematis tangutica var. tangutica
Clematis ligusticifolia
Clematis viticella
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA03 P30 Clematis pg 168.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Clematis morefieldii
Clematis crispa
Clematis reticulata
Clematis pitcheri var. dictyota
Clematis viorna
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA03 P31 Clematis pg 169.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Clematis columbiana var. tenuiloba
Clematis hirsutissima var. hirsutissima
Clematis socialis
Clematis fremontii
Clematis columbiana var. columbiana
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA03 P32 Helleborus Cimicifuga pg 177.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Cimicifuga americana
Cimicifuga rubifolia
Helleborus viridis
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA03 P33 Actaea Eranthis Nigella pg 182.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Nigella damascena
Actaea pachypoda
Eranthis hyemalis
Actaea rubra
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA03 P34 Adonis Caltha Trollius pg 185.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Adonis annua
Trollius albiflorus
Caltha natans
Caltha leptosepala
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA03 P35 Aconitum pg 194.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Aconitum columbianum subsp. columbianum
Aconitum columbianum subsp. viviparum
Aconitum reclinatum
Aconitum maximum subsp. maximum
Aconitum delphiniifolium
Aconitum uncinatum
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA03 P36 Delphinium pg 201.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Delphinium barbeyi
Delphinium robustum
Delphinium exaltatum
Delphinium stachydeum
Delphinium geyeri
Delphinium glaucum
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA03 P37 Delphinium pg 208.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Delphinium parryi subsp. parryi
Delphinium parryi subsp. blochmaniae
Delphinium scopulorum
Delphinium andersonii
Delphinium viridescens
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA03 P38 Delphinium pg 217.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Delphinium xantholeucum
Delphinium distichum
Delphinium uliginosum
Delphinium lineapetalum
Delphinium scaposum
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA03 P39 Delphinium pg 223.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Delphinium variegatum subsp. variegatum
Delphinium hansenii subsp. hansenii
Delphinium madrense
Delphinium carolinianum subsp. carolinianum
Delphinium wootonii
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA03 P40 Delphinium pg 230.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Delphinium bicolor subsp. bicolor
Delphinium glareosum
Delphinium nudicaule
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA03 P41 Delphinium pg 235.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Delphinium menziesii subsp. menziesii
Delphinium treleasei
Delphinium newtonianum
Delphinium tricorne
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA03 P42 Consolida Coptis Xanthorhiza pg 243.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Coptis laciniata
Consolida regalis
Coptis aspleniifolia
Coptis occidentalis
Coptis trifolia
Consolida pubescens
Consolida ajacis
Xanthorhiza simplicissima
John Myers
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John Myers
John Myers
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John Myers
FNA03 P43 Enemion pg 248.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Enemion hallii
Enemion savilei
Enemion occidentale
Enemion stipitatum
Enemion biternatum
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA03 P44 Aquilegia pg 252.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Aquilegia brevistyla
Aquilegia saximontana
Aquilegia chrysantha
Aquilegia pubescens
Aquilegia micrantha
Aquilegia scopulorum
Aquilegia jonesii
John Myers
John Myers
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Bee F. Gunn
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John Myers
FNA03 P45 Aquilegia pg 257.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Aquilegia formosa var. truncata
Aquilegia elegantula
Aquilegia flavescens
Aquilegia eximia
Aquilegia canadensis
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA03 P46 Thalictrum pg 262.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Thalictrum thalictroides
Thalictrum clavatum
Thalictrum sparsiflorum
Thalictrum minus
Thalictrum alpinum
Thalictrum mirabile
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
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FNA03 P47 Thalictrum pg 266.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Thalictrum dioicum
Thalictrum dasycarpum
Thalictrum polycarpum
Thalictrum cooleyi
Thalictrum pubescens
Thalictrum fendleri
Thalictrum heliophilum
Thalictrum occidentale
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FNA03 p16 Ranunculus pg 96.jpegRanunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculaceae
Ranunculus sect. Echinella
Ranunculus macranthus
Ranunculus occidentalis var. occidentalis
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers

Key

1 Flowers bilaterally symmetric; sepals showy; petals smaller than sepals. > 2
1 Flowers radially symmetric; sepals showy or not; petals present or absent, smaller to larger than sepals. > 4
2 Upper (adaxial) sepal (hood) saccate or helmet-shaped; petals completely hidden by sepals. Aconitum
2 Upper (adaxial) sepal spurred; petals at least partly exserted from calyx. > 3
3 Perennials; pistils 3(-5); petals 4, distinct. Delphinium
3 Annuals; pistil 1; petals 2, connate. Consolida
4 Fruits achenes or utricles; ovule 1 per pistil. > 5
4 Fruits follicles, capsules, or berries; ovules 2 or more per pistil (1 of 2 aborting in Xanthorhiza, leaving 1 seed at maturity). > 12
5 Sepals spurred; leaves all basal, blade linear or narrowly oblanceolate. Myosurus
5 Sepals plane; leaves either not all basal, or blade not linear or narrowly oblanceolate. > 6
6 Leaves all cauline and opposite; stems ±woody, at least at base. Clematis
6 Leaves cauline and alternate (rarely opposite), or basal, or plants with basal leaves and opposite or whorled involucral bracts; stems herbaceous. > 7
7 Plants with 1 or more pairs (opposite) or whorls of involucral bracts, these leaflike or calyxlike. > 8
7 Plants without involucral bracts (inconspicuous, linear-lanceolate involucral bracts in Trautvetteria), cauline leaves if present alternate (rarely a pair of opposite, unlobed leaves in Ranunculus sect. Flammula). > 9
8 Achenes with conspicuous veins or ribs on lateral surfaces; style absent. Thalictrum thalictroides
8 Achenes without veins on lateral surfaces; style present. Anemone
9 Petals absent; inflorescences panicles, racemes, or corymbs (umbels in Thalictrum thalictroides); filaments filiform or dilated distally. > 10
9 Petals present (rarely absent in Ranunculus pedatifidus); inflorescences simple or compound cymes or flowers solitary; filaments filiform. > 11
10 Leaves simple, blade lobed; flowers bisexual; inflorescences corymbs. Trautvetteria
10 Leaves compound; flowers unisexual or bisexual; inflorescences panicles, racemes, corymbs, or umbels. Thalictrum
11 Petals without nectaries; sepals 5(-8). Adonis
11 Petals with basal nectaries; sepals 3-5(-6). Ranunculus
12 Leaves dissected into linear, threadlike segments; pistils compound; fruits capsules. Nigella
12 Leaves not dissected, if parted or compound the segments not linear; pistils simple; fruits aggregates of follicles or solitary or aggregate berries. > 13
13 Shrubs; beak of follicle lateral, strongly incurved against abaxial surface of follicle. Xanthorhiza
13 Herbs; beak of follicle, if present, terminal or nearly so, straight or slightly curved, sometimes hooked at tip. > 14
14 Petals prominent, spurred. Aquilegia
14 Petals if present inconspicuous, plane or funnel-shaped. > 15
15 Flowers 12-50, in racemes or racemelike panicles. > 16
15 Flowers 1-10, in leafy cymes or solitary. > 17
16 Pistils 1-8; fruits follicles, usually aggregate; petals 2-cleft or absent. Cimicifuga
16 Pistil 1; fruits berries; petals unlobed. Actaea
17 Leaves simple, blade often lobed 1/2-3/4 its length, margins entire, crenate, or toothed; petals absent. > 18
17 Leaves compound or divided to base; petals usually inconspicuous (absent in Enemion). > 19
18 Leaf blades unlobed, margins entire, dentate, or crenate; fruits follicles. Caltha
18 Leaf blades lobed, margins serrate; fruits berries. Hydrastis
19 Leaves ternately 1-2× compound. > 20
19 Leaves palmately or pedately compound or divided. > 21
20 Leaves all basal; leaf blade deeply divided, ternately or pinnately 1-2× compound; petals present. Coptis
20 Leaves basal and cauline; leaf blade ternately 2× compound; petals absent. Enemion
21 Leaf segments lobed, margins sharply toothed; sepals persistent in fruit. Helleborus
21 Leaf segments cleft or parted, margins entire or toothed; sepals not persistent in fruit. > 22
22 Cauline leaves absent except for whorl of 3 involucral bracts immediately subtending flower; follicles stipitate. Eranthis
22 Cauline leaves alternate, (0.8-)1 cm or more from flower, involucral whorl absent; follicles sessile. Trollius
... more about "Ranunculaceae"
Alan T. Whittemore +  and Bruce D. Parfitt +
Jussieu +
cuneate +, truncate +  and cordate +
globose;cylindric +
Crowfoot Family +
Worldwide +
sessile +  and pedicellate +
showy +  and inconspicuous +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
axillary +  and terminal +
compound +  and simple +
whorled +, opposite +  and alternate +
palmate +  and pinnate +
incised;toothed;incised;toothed;entire +
distinct +
conspicuous +
reduced +
1 +  and many +
not arillate +  and stalked +
distinct +
3 +  and 6 +
persistent +
Ranunculaceae +
annual +  and perennial +
shrub +  and herb +
herbaceous +  and woody +