Anemone patens var. multifida

Pritzel

Linnaea 15: 581. 1841.

Common names: Pasqueflower prairie-smoke prairie-crocus pulsatille
Illustrated
Synonyms: Anemone patens var. nuttalliana (de Candolle) A. Gray Anemone patens var. wolfgangiana (Besser) Koch Pulsatilla patens subsp. asiatica Krylov & Sergievskaja Pulsatilla patens subsp. multifida (Pritzel) Zämelis
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 3.

Aerial shoots 5-40 (-60) cm, from caudices, caudices ascending to vertical. Basal leaves (3-) 5-8 (-10), primarily 3-foliolate with each leaflet dichotomously dissected; petiole 5-10 (-13) cm; terminal leaflet petiolulate to nearly sessile, obovate in outline, (2.5-) 3-5 cm, base narrowly cuneate, margins dichotomously dissected throughout, apex acute to obtuse, surfaces villous, rarely glabrous; lateral leaflets 3-4×-parted (±dichotomously); ultimate segments 2-4 mm wide. Inflorescences 1-flowered; peduncle villous or glabrate; involucral-bracts primarily 3, 1-tiered, simple, dissimilar to basal leaves, (2-) 2.5-4 cm, bases clasping, connate, margins deeply laciniate throughout, surfaces villous, rarely glabrous to nearly glabrous; segments usually 4-6, filiform to linear, unlobed, 1-2 (-3) mm wide. Flowers: sepals 5-8, blue, purple, to rarely nearly white, oblong to elliptic, (18-) 20-40 × (8-) 10-15 mm, abaxially villous, adaxially glabrous; petals present; stamens 150-200. Heads of achenes spheric to ovoid; pedicel 10-18 (-22) cm. Achenes: body ellipsoid to obovoid, 3-4 (-6) × ca. 1 mm, not winged, villous; beak curved, 20-40 mm, long-villous, plumose. 2n=16.


Phenology: Flowering spring–summer (Apr–Aug).
Habitat: Prairies, open slopes, sometimes open woods or granite outcrops in woods
Elevation: 100-3800 m

Distribution

V3 243-distribution-map.gif

Alta., B.C., Man., N.W.T., Ont., Sask., Yukon, Alaska, Colo., Idaho, Ill., Iowa, Minn., Mont., Nebr., N.Mex., N.Dak., S.Dak., Utah, Wis., Wyo., Eurasia

Discussion

Anemone patens var. multifida has frequently been recognized as a subspecies of A. patens. Although A. patens var. wolfgangiana has been used by some authors, A. patens var. multifida has priority.

Pasqueflower (as Anemone patens var. wolfgangiana) is the floral emblem of Manitoba and (as Pulsatilla hirsutissima) the state flower of South Dakota.

Native Americans used fresh leaves of Anemone patens var. multifida medicinally to treat rheumatism and neuralgia; crushed leaves for poultices; pulverized leaves to smell to alleviate headaches; and made decoctions from roots to treat lung problems (D. E. Moerman 1986).

The names Pulsatilla hirsutissima (Pursh) Britton and P. ludoviciana A. Heller are illegitimate.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"broadened" is not a number.

Acute (?) +  and Obtuse (?) +
Bryan E. Dutton +, Carl S. Keener +  and Bruce A. Ford +
Pritzel +
connate +
cuneate +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
rudimentary +
long-villous +
plumose +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
ellipsoid;obovoid +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (?) +
globose;cylindric +
ascending;vertical +
Pasqueflower +, prairie-smoke +, prairie-crocus +  and pulsatille +
2-9-flowered +
Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, N.W.T. +, Ont. +, Sask. +, Yukon +, Alaska +, Colo. +, Idaho +, Ill. +, Iowa +, Minn. +, Mont. +, Nebr. +, N.Mex. +, N.Dak. +, S.Dak. +, Utah +, Wis. +, Wyo. +  and Eurasia +
100-3800 m +
sessile +  and pedicellate +
showy +  and inconspicuous +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (60 cm600 mm <br />0.6 m <br />) +
stalked +, sessile +  and aggregate +
ovoid;obovoid +
Prairies, open slopes, sometimes open woods or granite outcrops in woods +
spheric;ovoid +
axillary +  and terminal +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
petiolate +, compound +  and simple +
whorled +, opposite +  and alternate +
dissected +
palmate +  and pinnate +
laciniate;dissected +
18 cm180 mm <br />0.18 m <br /> (22 cm220 mm <br />0.22 m <br />) +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (18 cm180 mm <br />0.18 m <br />) +
glabrate +  and villous +
distinct +
conspicuous +
reduced +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (13 cm130 mm <br />0.13 m <br />) +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
Flowering spring–summer (Apr–Aug). +
not arillate +  and stalked +
4 (?) +  and 6 (?) +
Unlobed (?) +, Filiform (?) +  and Linear (?) +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (?) +  and 0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (?) +
1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
purple;rarely nearly white +
not persistent +
distinct +
glabrous +  and villous +
5 +  and 8 +
oblong +  and elliptic +
0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
40 cm400 mm <br />0.4 m <br /> (60 cm600 mm <br />0.6 m <br />) +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (40 cm400 mm <br />0.4 m <br />) +
Illustrated +
persistent +
rarely glabrous;nearly glabrous +
Anemone patens var. nuttalliana +, Anemone patens var. wolfgangiana +, Pulsatilla patens subsp. asiatica +  and Pulsatilla patens subsp. multifida +
Anemone patens var. multifida +
Anemone patens +
variety +
petiolulate;nearly sessile +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
2-9-flowered +
herbaceous +  and woody +