Anemone virginiana

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 1: 540. 1753.

Common names: Thimbleweed tall anemone anémone de Virginie
IllustratedEndemic
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 3.

Aerial shoots 30-100 (-110) cm, from caudices, rarely with ascending rhizomes, caudices ascending to vertical. Basal leaves 1-5, ternate; petiole 5-35 cm; terminal leaflet sessile or nearly so, oblanceolate to obovate, 2-9 (-12) × 2-5 (-7) cm, base cuneate to broadly cuneate, margins coarsely serrate and incised on distal 1/2, apex acuminate to narrowly acute, surfaces pilose, more so abaxially; lateral leaflets usually 1-2×-lobed or parted, occasionally unlobed; ultimate lobes 10-30 (-40) mm wide. Inflorescences (1-) 3-9-flowered cymes; peduncle villous; primary involucral-bracts 3 (-5), secondary involucral-bracts 2 (-3), (1-) 2-tiered, ternate, ±similar to basal leaves, bases distinct; terminal leaflet ±sessile, elliptic to oblanceolate, 2-10 (-12) cm (2 cm in secondary involucre) × 2-5 (-7) cm, bases cuneate, margins coarsely serrate and incised on distal 1/2, apex acuminate to narrowly acute, surfaces pilose, more so abaxially; lateral leaflets unlobed or 1×-lobed or parted; ultimate lobes 8-25 (-35) mm wide. Flowers: sepals usually 5, green, yellow, or red (rarely white or abaxially green to green-yellow and adaxially green or yellow and tinged red), oblong, ovate, or obovate, 6.5-20 × 2.5-10mm, abaxially hairy, adaxially glabrous or nearly so; stamens 50-70. Heads of achenes oblong-ellipsoid, rarely obconic; pedicel 13-25 (-30) cm. Achenes: body obovoid, 2-3.7 × 1.5-2mm, not winged, densely woolly; beak curved, 1-1.5mm, puberulous, not plumose.

Distribution

Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., N.S., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), Ont., Que., Sask., Ala., Ark., Conn., D.C., Del., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Mass., Md., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., N.C., N.Dak., N.H., N.J., N.Y., Nebr., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Va., Vt., W.Va., Wis., Wyo.

Discussion

Varieties 3 (3 in the flora).

See C. S. Keener et al. (1995) for an analysis of infraspecific variation within Anemone virginiana from which the current treatment has been adopted.

Varieties of Anemone virginiana used medicinally by native Americans were not specified; the species was used as an antidiarrheal, an aid for whooping cough, a stimulant, an emetic, a love potion, a remedy for tuberculosis, and a protection against witchcraft medicine (D. E. Moerman 1986).

Selected References

None.

Key

1 Sepals usually 5–10mm, abaxially densely tomentose; anthers 0.7–1(–1.2) mm; primarily Canadian, in dry woods, sandy ridges, and grasslands. Anemone virginiana var. cylindroidea
1 Sepals (6–)10–21 mm, abaxially usually thinly pubescent; anthers (0.8–)1–1.7 mm; widely distributed, in moist habitats. > 2
2 Base of involucral bracts cordate or reniform, rarely subtruncate, terminal leaflets light green, margins proximally mostly straight- to convex-sided, variously lobed or serrate, variously pubescent; anthers typically greater than 1.1 mm; heads of achenes ovoid to ovoid-cylindric, (9–)11–14 mm diam.; widely distributed. Anemone virginiana var. virginiana
2 Base of involucral bracts usually truncate to subtruncate, sometimes reniform or cordate, terminal leaflets deep green, margins proximally concave- to straight-sided, distally incised, thinly pubescent; anthers typically less than 1.2 mm; heads of achenes ±ovoid-cylindric, 8–10(–11) mm diam.; distributed primarily in New England, Great Lakes area, and adjacent Canada. Anemone virginiana var. alba

"broadened" is not a number.

... more about "Anemone virginiana"
Bryan E. Dutton +, Carl S. Keener +  and Bruce A. Ford +
Linnaeus +
distinct +
cuneate +  and broadly cuneate +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
rudimentary +
puberulous +
not plumose +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.37 cm3.7 mm <br />0.0037 m <br />) +
obovoid +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
globose;cylindric +
ascending;vertical +
Thimbleweed +, tall anemone +  and anémone de Virginie +
(1-)3-9-flowered +
Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, N.B. +, N.S. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.) +, Ont. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Ala. +, Ark. +, Conn. +, D.C. +, Del. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, La. +, Maine +, Mass. +, Md. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, N.C. +, N.Dak. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, Nebr. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, S.Dak. +, Tenn. +, Va. +, Vt. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +  and Wyo. +
sessile +  and pedicellate +
showy +  and inconspicuous +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (60 cm600 mm <br />0.6 m <br />) +
stalked +, sessile +  and aggregate +
ovoid;obovoid +
obconic;oblong-ellipsoid +
axillary +  and terminal +
sepaloid +  and leaflike +
petiolate +, compound +  and simple +
whorled +, opposite +  and alternate +
palmate +  and pinnate +
incised;incised +
25 cm250 mm <br />0.25 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
13 cm130 mm <br />0.13 m <br /> (25 cm250 mm <br />0.25 m <br />) +
distinct +
conspicuous +
reduced +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (35 cm350 mm <br />0.35 m <br />) +
not arillate +  and stalked +
red;yellow;red;yellow;green +
not persistent +
distinct +
nearly +, glabrous +  and hairy +
obovate +, ovate +  and oblong +
0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
100 cm1,000 mm <br />1 m <br /> (110 cm1,100 mm <br />1.1 m <br />) +
30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br /> (100 cm1,000 mm <br />1 m <br />) +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
persistent +
pilose;pilose +
Anemonastrum +, Anemonidium +, Anemonoides +, Hepatica +, Jurtsevia +  and Pulsatilla +
Anemone virginiana +
species +
sessile;nearly;sessile +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br />) +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
elliptic;oblanceolate +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
2-9-flowered +
herbaceous +  and woody +