Aquilegia canadensis

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 1: 533-534. 1753.

Common names: Canadian columbine ancolie du Canada
EndemicIllustrated
Synonyms: Aquilegia australis Small Aquilegia canadensis var. australis (Small) Munz Aquilegia canadensis var. coccinea (Small) Munz Aquilegia canadensis var. eminens (Greene) B. Boivin Aquilegia canadensis var. latiuscula (Greene) Munz Aquilegia coccinea
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 3.

Stems 15-90 cm. Basal leaves 2×-ternately compound, 7-30 cm, much shorter than stems; leaflets green adaxially, 17-52 mm, not viscid; primary petiolules 17-93 mm (leaflets not crowded), glabrous or pilose, sometimes somewhat viscid. Flowers pendent; sepals divergent from floral axis, red or apex green, lanceovate to oblong-ovate, 8-18 × 3-8 mm, apex broadly acute to acuminate; petals: spurs red, straight, ± parallel to divergent, 13-25 mm, stout (at least proximally), abruptly narrowed near middle, blades pale-yellow or yellow-green, oblong to rounded, 5-9 × 4-8 mm; stamens 15-23 mm. Follicles 15-31 mm; beak 10-18 mm. 2n = 14.


Phenology: Flowering spring–summer (Mar–Jun).
Habitat: Shaded or open woods, often around cliffs, rock outcrops, and forest edges
Elevation: 0-1600 m

Distribution

V3 638-distribution-map.gif

Man., Ont., Que., Sask., Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mo., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis.

Discussion

P. A. Munz divided this species into five varieties, based on size of the plants, sepals, and leaflets and whether the leaves are 2-3×-ternately compound. The variation in size of these organs is not discontinuous or even bimodal, however, and I have not seen any material with 3×-ternately compound leaves. For this reason, no varieties are recognized here. The name Aquilegia canadensis var. hybrida Hooker has been misapplied to this species; the type specimen actually belongs to A. brevistyla (B. Boivin 1953).

Aquilegia canadensis has also been reported from New Brunswick, but the specimen has been destroyed and the species has never been recollected in the province.

Native Americans prepare infusions from various parts of plants of Aquilegia canadensis to treat heart trouble, kidney problems, headaches, bladder problems, and fever, and as a wash for poison ivy; pulverized seeds were used as love charms; and a compound was used to detect bewitchment (D. E. Moerman 1986).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Aquilegia canadensis"
Alan T. Whittemore +
Linnaeus +
7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
cuneate +, truncate +  and cordate +
straight +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br />) +
yellow-green +  and pale-yellow +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
oblong;rounded +
4mm;8mm +
globose;cylindric +
Canadian columbine +  and ancolie du Canada +
1-10-flowered +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
Man. +, Ont. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Ala. +, Ark. +, Conn. +, Del. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mo. +, Nebr. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, N.Dak. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, S.Dak. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Vt. +, Va. +, W.Va. +  and Wis. +
0-1600 m +
1-10-flowered +
showy +  and inconspicuous +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (3.1 cm31 mm <br />0.031 m <br />) +
sessile +  and aggregate +
Shaded or open woods, often around cliffs, rock outcrops, and forest edges +
axillary +  and terminal +
compound +  and simple +
whorled +, opposite +  and alternate +
cauline +  and basal +
not viscid +
parted +  and lobed +
1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br /> (5.2 cm52 mm <br />0.052 m <br />) +
palmate +  and pinnate +
distinct +
conspicuous +
reduced +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
Flowering spring–summer (Mar–Jun). +
5 +  and 10 +
pilose +  and glabrous +
1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br /> (9.3 cm93 mm <br />0.093 m <br />) +
not arillate +  and stalked +
obovoid +
white;blue yellow or red +
not persistent +
distinct +
3 +  and 6 +
lanceovate +  and oblong-ovate +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (5.1 cm51 mm <br />0.051 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
Endemic +  and Illustrated +
less parallel +  and divergent +
straight +
backward-pointing +
narrowed +
1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
scale-like +
15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br /> (90 cm900 mm <br />0.9 m <br />) +
persistent +
Aquilegia australis +, Aquilegia canadensis var. australis +, Aquilegia canadensis var. coccinea +, Aquilegia canadensis var. eminens +, Aquilegia canadensis var. latiuscula +  and Aquilegia coccinea +
Aquilegia canadensis +
Aquilegia +
species +
enlarged +
herbaceous +  and woody +