Bistorta bistortoides

(Pursh) Small

Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 33: 57. 1906.

Common names: Western or American bistort smokeweed
Endemic
Basionym: Polygonum bistortoides Pursh Fl. Amer. Sept. 1: 271. 1813
Synonyms: Bistorta bistortoides var. oblongifolia (Meisner) Moldenke Persicaria bistortoides Polygonum bistortoides var. linearifolium (S. Watson) Small Polygonum bistortoides var. oblongifolium (Meisner) H. St. John
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 5. Treatment on page 596. Mentioned on page 594, 595.

Plants (10–) 20–70 (–75) cm; rhizomes contorted. Stems 1–3. Leaves: ocrea brown, cylindric, 9–25 (–32) mm, margins oblique, glabrous; petiole attached to sheath 10–35 (–50) mm, usually wingless, rarely winged distally, (10–) 30–70 (–110) mm; blade elliptic to oblong-lanceolate or oblong-oblanceolate, (3.5–) 5–22 × 0.8–4.8 cm, base tapered to rounded, rarely abruptly truncate or cuneate, often asymmetric, margins entire, sometimes wavy, apex usually acute to acuminate, rarely obtuse, abaxial face glabrous or pubescent with whitish or brownish hairs, glaucous, adaxial face glabrous, not glaucous; cauline leaves 2–6, petiolate proximally, sessile distally, gradually reduced distally, blade elliptic or lanceolate to linear-lanceolate. Inflorescences 1 (–2), short-cylindric to ovoid, (10–) 20–40 (–50) × (8–) 12–25 mm, bulblets absent; peduncle 1–10 cm. Pedicels ascending or spreading, 2–8 (–11) mm. Flowers 1–2 per ocreate fascicle; perianth white or pale-pink; tepals oblong, 4–5 mm, apex obtuse to acute; stamens exserted; anthers yellow, elliptic. Achenes yellowish-brown or olive-brown, 3.2–4.2 × 1.3–2 mm, shiny, smooth. 2n = 24.


Phenology: Flowering Jul–Sep.
Habitat: Streambanks, moist or swampy meadows, alpine slopes
Elevation: 1300-3800 m

Distribution

V5 1211-distribution-map.gif

Alta., B.C., Ariz., Calif., Colo., Idaho, Mont., Nev., N.Mex., Oreg., Utah, Wash., Wyo.

Discussion

Infrequent specimens of Bistorta bistortoides have basal leaf blades that are lance-ovate and abruptly contracted at the bases, and petioles distinctly winged distally, similar to those of B. officinalis.

Roots of western bistort were used in soups and stews by the Blackfoot, boiled with meat by the Cherokee, and used in a poultice that was applied to sores and boils by the Miwok (D. E. Moerman 1998).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"/2" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Bistorta bistortoides"
glaucous +, pubescent +  and glabrous +
olive-brown;yellowish-brown +
0.32 cm3.2 mm <br />0.0032 m <br /> (0.42 cm4.2 mm <br />0.0042 m <br />) +
exserted +  and included +
3-gonous +
1.3mm;2mm +
not glaucous +  and glabrous +
ovate +  and elliptic +
Craig C. Freeman +  and Harold R. Hinds† +
(Pursh) Small +
tapered +  and rounded rarely abruptly truncate or cuneate +
Polygonum bistortoides +
3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (22 cm220 mm <br />0.22 m <br />) +
lanceolate;linear-lanceolate +
0.8cm;4.8cm +
foliaceous +  and perfoliate +
scale-like +
just below the soil surface or and above the soil surface +  and spreading +
sessile +  and petiolate +
Western or American bistort +  and smokeweed +
Alta. +, B.C. +, Ariz. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Idaho +, Mont. +, Nev. +, N.Mex. +, Oreg. +, Utah +, Wash. +  and Wyo. +
1300-3800 m +
adnate +, connate +  and distinct +
disarticulating +  and solid +
decumbent to erect +  and prostrate +
unwinged +  and winged +
black +, red +, brown +  and yellowish +
exserted +  and included +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
spheroidal +, 4-gonous +, lenticular +, biconvex +, discoid +, 3-gonous +  and 2-gonous +
Streambanks, moist or swampy meadows, alpine slopes +
brownish +  and whitish +
compound +, branched +  and simple +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
short-cylindric +  and ovoid +
nonmembranous +
sessile +  and petiolate +
deciduous +
swollen +
partly +  and foliaceous +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (3.2 cm32 mm <br />0.032 m <br />) +
disintegrating +
deciduous +  and persistent +
cylindric +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
coriaceous +  and membranous +
anatropous +, , +  and orthotropous +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br />) +
spreading;ascending +
accrescent +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
campanulate +
nonaccrescent +
fleshy +, indurate +  and membranous +
winged +  and wingless +
7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br /> (11 cm110 mm <br />0.11 m <br />) +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
Flowering Jul–Sep. +
(2-)3(-4)-carpellate +
Bull. Torrey Bot. Club +
rhizomatous +
slender;stout +
3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
5 (?) +  and 8 (?) +
1 +  and 3 +
2 +  and 3 +
penicillate +, fimbriate +  and capitate +
deciduous +  and persistent +
? (?) +  and ? (?) +
coriaceous +  and membranous +
connate +  and distinct +
spreading;erect +
Bistorta bistortoides var. oblongifolia +, Persicaria bistortoides +, Polygonum bistortoides var. linearifolium +  and Polygonum bistortoides var. oblongifolium +
Bistorta bistortoides +
Bistorta +
species +
monomorphic +  and petaloid +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
coriaceous +
persistent +
membranous +
pubescent +  and glabrous +