Bistorta vivipara

(Linnaeus) Delarbre

Fl. Auvergne ed. 2, 2: 516. 1800.

Common names: Alpine bistort
Illustrated
Basionym: Polygonum viviparum Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 1: 360. 1753
Synonyms: Bistorta vivipara subsp. macounii (Small ex J. M. Macoun) Soják Persicaria vivipara Polygonum viviparum var. macounii (Small ex J. M. Macoun) Hultén
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 5. Treatment on page 595. Mentioned on page 594.

Plants (2–) 8–30 (–45) cm; rhizomes sometimes contorted. Stems 1–2 (–3). Leaves: ocrea brown, cylindric, 4–22 (–27) mm, margins strongly oblique, glabrous; petiole attached to sheath 6–20 (–45) mm, unwinged distally, 5–110 (–200) mm; blade linear to lanceolate or oblong-ovate, 1–8 (–10) × 0.5–1.7 (–2.3) cm, base cuneate to rounded or cordate, often asymmetric, margins entire, usually revolute, not wavy, apex obtuse to acute, abaxial face pubescent with whitish or brownish hairs, glaucous, adaxial face glabrous, not glaucous; cauline leaves 2–4, petiolate proximally, sessile distally, gradually reduced distally, blade linear-lanceolate to linear. Inflorescences 1, narrowly elongate-cylindric, (15–) 20–90 × 4–10 mm, usually bearing pink to brown or purple pyriform bulblets proximally and sterile flowers distally; peduncle 1–5 cm. Pedicels ascending or spreading, (1–) 2–5 mm. Flowers 1–2 per ocreate fascicle; perianth greenish proximally, usually white or pink distally, rarely red; tepals obovate, 2.1–4 mm, apex obtuse to acute; stamens included or exserted, some or all often poorly developed; anthers reddish to purple. Achenes rarely produced, dark-brown, 2.2–3.3 × 0.9–1.5 mm, dull, granular. 2n = 96, 120.


Phenology: Flowering Jun–Sep.
Habitat: Moist to wet spruce or mixed woods along shorelines, moist subalpine woods and meadows, alpine meadows, heaths, nutrient-rich sites
Elevation: 0-4000 m

Distribution

V5 1210-distribution-map.gif

Greenland, St. Pierre and Miquelon, Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Labr.), N.W.T., Nunavut, Ont., Que., Sask., Yukon, Alaska, Ariz., Colo., Idaho, Maine, Mich., Minn., Mont., Nev., N.H., N.Mex., Oreg., S.Dak., Utah, Vt., Wash., Wyo., Europe, Asia

Discussion

Bistorta vivipara is highly variable morphologically and cytologically. Robust plants with large leaves, compact spikes, and persistent bulblets have been named subsp. macounii. Abortion of stamens, production of bulblets, and the rarity of fruits suggest that reproduction is largely asexual; fruits and seedlings are produced rarely (N. Söyrinki 1989). B. Jonsell and T. Karlsson (2000+, vol. 1) summarized chromosome numbers that include 2n = 66, ca. 77, ca. 80, 88, 99, ca. 100, 110, 120, and ca. 132.

A. E. Porsild and W. J. Cody (1980) reported that indigenous peoples of the circumpolar region eat the starchy, slightly astringent rootstocks raw or cooked, and preserve them in seal oil or by freezing. E. Hultén (1968) reported that the rootstocks taste like almonds.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"/2" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Bistorta vivipara"
glaucous +  and pubescent +
0.22 cm2.2 mm <br />0.0022 m <br /> (0.33 cm3.3 mm <br />0.0033 m <br />) +
exserted +  and included +
3-gonous +
0.9mm;1.5mm +
not glaucous +  and glabrous +
reddish +  and purple +
ovate +  and elliptic +
Craig C. Freeman +  and Harold R. Hinds† +
(Linnaeus) Delarbre +
cuneate +  and rounded or cordate +
Polygonum viviparum +
8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br /> (2.3 cm23 mm <br />0.023 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
linear-lanceolate;linear +
0.5cm;1.7cm +
foliaceous +  and perfoliate +
scale-like +
just below the soil surface or and above the soil surface +  and spreading +
sessile +  and petiolate +
Alpine bistort +
Greenland +, St. Pierre and Miquelon +, Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Labr.) +, N.W.T. +, Nunavut +, Ont. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Yukon +, Alaska +, Ariz. +, Colo. +, Idaho +, Maine +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mont. +, Nev. +, N.H. +, N.Mex. +, Oreg. +, S.Dak. +, Utah +, Vt. +, Wash. +, Wyo. +, Europe +  and Asia +
0-4000 m +
adnate +, connate +  and distinct +
disarticulating +  and solid +
decumbent to erect +  and prostrate +
unwinged +  and winged +
black +, red +, brown +  and yellowish +
exserted +  and included +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
spheroidal +, 4-gonous +, lenticular +, biconvex +, discoid +, 3-gonous +  and 2-gonous +
Moist to wet spruce or mixed woods along shorelines, moist subalpine woods and meadows, alpine meadows, heaths, nutrient-rich sites +
brownish +  and whitish +
compound +, branched +  and simple +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
elongate-cylindric +
nonmembranous +
sessile +  and petiolate +
deciduous +
not wavy +
swollen +
partly +  and foliaceous +
2.2 cm22 mm <br />0.022 m <br /> (2.7 cm27 mm <br />0.027 m <br />) +
disintegrating +
deciduous +  and persistent +
cylindric +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (2.2 cm22 mm <br />0.022 m <br />) +
coriaceous +  and membranous +
anatropous +, , +  and orthotropous +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
spreading;ascending +
accrescent +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
campanulate +
nonaccrescent +
fleshy +, indurate +  and membranous +
11 cm110 mm <br />0.11 m <br /> (20 cm200 mm <br />0.2 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (11 cm110 mm <br />0.11 m <br />) +
Flowering Jun–Sep. +
(2-)3(-4)-carpellate +
Fl. Auvergne ed. +
rhizomatous +
slender;stout +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (4.5 cm45 mm <br />0.045 m <br />) +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
Illustrated +
exserted +  and included +
5 (?) +  and 8 (?) +
1 +  and 2 +
2 +  and 3 +
penicillate +, fimbriate +  and capitate +
deciduous +  and persistent +
? (?) +  and ? (?) +
coriaceous +  and membranous +
connate +  and distinct +
spreading;erect +
Bistorta vivipara subsp. macounii +, Persicaria vivipara +  and Polygonum viviparum var. macounii +
Bistorta vivipara +
Bistorta +
species +
monomorphic +  and petaloid +
obovate +
0.21 cm2.1 mm <br />0.0021 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
coriaceous +
persistent +
membranous +
pubescent +  and glabrous +