Carex brevior

(Dewey) Mackenzie ex Lunell

Amer. Midl. Naturalist 4: 235. 1915.

Common names: Carex à têtes
Illustrated
Basionyms: Carex straminea var. brevior Dewey Amer. J. Sci. Arts 11: 158. 1826
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 23. Mentioned on page 372.

Plants densely cespitose; rhizomes sometimes short-prolonged, appearing elongate in old clumps. Culms 15–120 cm; vegetative culms few, inconspicuous, usually fewer than 15 leaves, not strikingly 3-ranked. Leaves: sheaths adaxially white-hyaline, summits U-shaped or sometimes prolonged to 2 mm beyond collar and rounded, smooth; distal ligules 2.2–3.5 mm; blades 3–5 per fertile culm, 12–30 cm × 1.5–3.5 mm. Inflorescences open, brown, (1.3–) 2.5–5 (–6.5) cm × 5–18 mm; proximal internode (3–) 6–13 (–23) mm; 2d internode 2–12 mm; proximal bracts scalelike or bristlelike, shorter than inflorescences. Spikes (3–) 4–7, 5–7 on larger culms, distant, distinct, ovoid to ellipsoid, 7–17 (–24) × 4–8 (–12) mm, base attenuate or rarely rounded, apex acute to rounded; terminal spike usually with conspicuous staminate base. Pistillate scales white-hyaline, tinged reddish-brown, usually with whitish, pale gold, or green midstripe, broadly lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 2.6–4.3 mm, as long as to 0.7–0.9 mm shorter than perignyium beaks, narrower than perigynia, margins thin, sometimes involute, apex mostly acute. Perigynia (10–) 15–40 (–45) per spike, ascending-spreading, green or reddish-brown, veinless or faintly and irregularly 1–5-veined adaxially, orbiculate or broadly ovate, planoconvex, (2.6–) 3.4–4.8 (–5.2) × (2–) 2.3–3.2 mm, 0.5–0.6 mm thick, 1.2–1.8 times as long as wide, nearly leathery, margin flat, including wing 0.3–0.8 mm wide, ciliate-serrulate at least distally, smooth; beak pale green or brown at tip, flat, ± ciliate-serrulate, abaxial suture with gold or reddish brown-hyaline margin, distance from beak tip to achene 1.5–2.4 mm. Achenes orbiculate to broadly ovate, 1.5–2.2 × 1.3–1.8 mm, 0.5–0.6 mm thick. 2n = 48, 52, 56, 60, 64, 68.


Phenology: Fruiting early–mid summer.
Habitat: Prairies, meadows, open woods, dry roadbanks, often in calcareous or neutral soils
Elevation: 0–2700 m

Distribution

V23 658-distribution-map.jpg

Alta., B.C., Man., Ont., Que., Sask., Ariz., Ark., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., Maine, Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo., Mexico (Tamaulipas)

Discussion

Carex brevior seems to display an unusually broad, aneuploid chromosome series that does not readily correlated with any features of external morphology (P. E. Rothrock and A. A. Reznicek 1998). The chromosome variation may, however, have a geographic relationship. Among the plants observed, the lowest number came from northeast Texas while the highest number (n = 34) came from Manitoba (Á. Löve and D. Löve 1981b).

Records of Carex brevior from ruderal habitats east and south of its main range are likely introductions.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"+timesaslongasinflorescences" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property."not undefined" is not a number.

... more about "Carex brevior"
68 +, 64 +, 60 +, 56 +, 52 +  and 48 +
orbiculate;broadly ovate +
smaller +
0.5mm +  and 0.6mm +
bidentatate +
papillose +
Joy Mastrogiuseppe +, Paul E. Rothrock +, A. C. Dibble +  and A. A. Reznicek +
(Dewey) Mackenzie ex Lunell +
shortened +
persistent +
conspicuous +
rounded +  and attenuate +
not enlarged +
Carex straminea var. brevior +
ciliate-serrulate +
12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
3 (?) +  and 5 (?) +
v--shaped +
1.5mm;3.5mm +
glumaceous +  and foliaceous +
2-ranked +  and arranged +
ascending +  and appressed +
scale-like +  and leaflike +
parallel +  and divergent +
terete +, rolled +  and plicate +
Carex à têtes +
inconspicuous +
fertile +  and vegetative +
round +  and trigonous +
15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br /> (120 cm1,200 mm <br />1.2 m <br />) +
0.22 cm2.2 mm <br />0.0022 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, Ont. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Ariz. +, Ark. +, Colo. +, Conn. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Ga. +, Idaho +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, Maine +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, Mont. +, Nebr. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Mex. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, N.Dak. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.Dak. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Vt. +, Va. +, Wash. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +, Wyo. +  and Mexico (Tamaulipas) +
0–2700 m +
open +, pistillate +  and staminate +
hypogynous +  and subtending +
biconvex +  and trigonous +
Prairies, meadows, open woods, dry roadbanks, often in calcareous or neutral soils +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (6.5 cm65 mm <br />0.065 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
not prophyllate +, sessile +  and pistillate +
multi-ranked +, 2-ranked +, 3-ranked +  and alternate +
basal +  and cauline +
reddish brown-hyaline +  and gold +
0.3mm +  and 0.8mm +
green +, pale gold +  and whitish +
with (1-)3-6(-30) bristles and/or scales +
0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br /> (0.09 cm0.9 mm <br />9.0e-4 m <br />) +
1-5-veined +, faintly +  and veinless +
reddish-brown +  and green +
ascending-spreading +
0.5mm +  and 0.6mm +
Fruiting early–mid summer. +
2-3(-4)-carpellate +
3 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br />) +
Amer. Midl. Naturalist +
short-prolonged +
adventitious +
tinged reddish-brown +  and white-hyaline +
basal +  and proximal +
broadly lanceolate;narrowly ovate +
0.26 cm2.6 mm <br />0.0026 m <br /> (0.43 cm4.3 mm <br />0.0043 m <br />) +
narrower +
herbaceous +  and membranous +
not differentiated +
cylindric +
Illustrated +
1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br /> (2.4 cm24 mm <br />0.024 m <br />) +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
distinct +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br />) +
ovoid;ellipsoid +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
septate +, hollow +  and solid +
compressed +, terete +  and trigonous +
papillate +
deciduous +  and persistent +
2-3(-4)-fid +
prolonged +
rounded +  and u--shaped +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
Carex brevior +
Carex sect. Ovales +
species +
plant +  and cespitose +