Herbs, annual or perennial, cespitose or not, rhizomatous or not, stoloniferous or not. Roots fibrous, principally adventitious. Stems (culms) usually trigonous, occasionally terete, rarely compressed, usually solid, rarely hollow or septate. Leaves basal and/or cauline, alternate, usually 3-ranked, rarely 2-ranked or multi-ranked, bases forming cylindric sheaths enclosing stem, margins usually fused; junction of sheaths and blades often with adaxial flaps of tissue or fringes of hair (ligules); blades frequently absent from some basal leaves, rarely from cauline leaves, when present divergent or ascending, flat, folded, plicate, rolled, or terete, linear, venation parallel. Primary inflorescences (spikelets) a shortened axis; glumaceous bracts (scales) 1–many, spirally arranged, sometimes 2-ranked, usually appressed or ascending; scales usually all fertile, each subtending a single flower, sometimes proximal and/or distal scales empty; lateral spikes often with basal, usually empty, usually 2-keeled scale (prophyll); occasionally prophyll subtending and enclosing rachilla, bearing 1 pistillate, sometimes (0–) 3 staminate flowers and empty scales (Carex, Cymophyllus, and Kobresia). Secondary inflorescences panicles, often modified to corymb, pseudoumbel, cyme (anthela), raceme, spike, or capitulum (head), rarely single spike, usually subtended by foliaceous or, less frequently, glumaceous bracts; secondary inflorescences sometimes simulating spikelets (Carex, Cymophyllus, and Kobresia). Flowers hypogynous, bisexual in most genera, unisexual in Scleria, Carex, Cymophyllus, and Kobresia; perianth absent or with (1–) 3–6 (–30) bristles and/or scales, usually falling off with fruit; stamens usually (1–) 3, rarely more, usually distinct; anthers basifixed; pistils 1, 2–3 (–4) -carpellate, fused, locule 1; style undivided or branches 2–3 (–4); stigma sometimes papillate. Fruits achenes, usually trigonous or biconvex; pericarps thin (except in Scleria). Seeds 1; testa thin, free from pericarp; embryo basal; endosperm abundant. x = 5–ca. 100.

Discussion

Genera ca. 100, species ca. 5000 (27 genera, 843 species in the flora).

No consensus exists regarding the number of genera and the overall relationships of genera within Cyperaceae. The most recent account of the family (P. Goetghebeur 1998) recognized 104 genera distributed among 4 subfamilies and 14 tribes. That arrangement differs somewhat from that of J. Bruhl (1995). With one minor exception the arrangement of the family here follows that of Goetghebeur.

The family is characterized by the occurrence of a number of unusual cytological features including: (1) chromosomes with diffuse centromeres, (2) post-reductional meiosis, and (3) pollen grains formed from tetrads in which 3 of the 4 microspores fail to develop. The first two features are found in at least some Juncaceae and are unique to the two families. Juncaceae also have pollen in tetrads, but in that family all four microspores produce pollen grains. Some species in some genera of Cyperaceae (particularly Eleocharis) possess chromosomes with localized centromeres (S. S. Bir et al. 1993). The wide range of chromosome numbers found in Cyperaceae is largely because of agmatoploidy; polyploidy has been hypothesized for some genera, especially Eleocharis, although polyploidy has not been demonstrated unequivocally.

Because of morphologic similarities in vegetative and inflorescence characters, the family has commonly been associated with Poaceae. Cytological features discussed above clearly indicate that to be a superficial similarity. Data from rbcL studies also support the view that Cyperaceae and Poaceae are not closely related (M. R. Duvall et al. 1993b; G. M. Plunkett et al. 1995); they do support the concept of close relationship between Cyperaceae and Juncaceae.

For most families of flowering plants the phenological data given are flowering times. Because most Cyperaceae cannot be reliably identified when in flower, in this volume fruiting time is given for all species by season, sometimes qualified by early, mid, or late, or by months. The fruiting time has been interpreted broadly to include the period when the fruit is more or less fully formed but not yet ripe. The fruiting period provided covers the entire range of the taxon. Quite a difference between fruiting periods in different parts of the range of the species may well occur, especially for widespread species and species with extensive elevation range.

For a recent, comprehensive review of the economic importance of Cyperaceae, see D. A. Simpson and C. A. Inglis (2001).

Selected References

None.

Illustrations

 Family TaxonIllustrator 
FNA23 P1 Intro pg 4.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Eriophorum
Lipocarpha
Fuirena
Kobresia
Carex utriculata
John Myers
Yevonn Wilson-Ramsey
John Myers
Amanda Humphrey
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P10 Trichophorum cespitosum pg 30.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Trichophorum cespitosum
Trichophorum pumilum
Trichophorum clementis
Trichophorum alpinum
Trichophorum clintonii
Trichophorum planifolium
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA23 P100 Carex rufina pg 393.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex rufina
Carex eleusinoides
Carex nigra
Carex aperta
Carex haydenii
Carex emoryi
Carex interrupta
Carex torta
Carex endlichii
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P101 Carex aguatilis var aquatilis pg 397.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex aquatilis var. aquatilis
Carex aquatilis var. dives
Carex aquatilis var. substricta
Carex scopulorum var. scopulorum
Carex scopulorum var. bracteosa
Carex scopulorum var. prionophylla
Carex bigelowii subsp. bigelowii
Carex bigelowii subsp. lugens
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P102 Carex atrata pg 404.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex atrata
Carex atratiformis
Carex chalciolepis
Carex albonigra
Carex norvegica
Carex media
Carex stevenii
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P103 Carex mertensii pg 407.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex mertensii
Carex sabulosa
Carex gmelinii
Carex stylosa
Carex holostoma
Carex parryana
Carex hallii
Carex idahoa
Carex buxbaumii
Carex adelostoma
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P104 Carex bella pg 410.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex bella
Carex heteroneura
Carex epapillosa
Carex helleri
Carex pelocarpa
Carex nova
Carex nelsonii
Carex raynoldsii
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P105 Carex serratodens pg 413.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex serratodens
Carex aboriginum
Carex specuicola
Carex paysonis
Carex microchaeta subsp. microchaeta
Carex microchaeta subsp. nesophila
Carex podocarpa
Carex spectabilis
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P106 Carex limosa pg 418.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex limosa
Carex rariflora
Carex pluriflora
Carex barrattii
Carex magellanica
Carex macrochaeta
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P107 Carex flacca pg 420.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex flacca
Carex pendula
Carex joorii
Carex verrucosa
Carex glaucescens
Carex spissa
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P108 Carex aurea pg 425.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex aurea
Carex hassei
Carex garberi
Carex bicolor
Carex vaginata
Carex laxa
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P109 Carex polymorpha pg 429.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex polymorpha
Carex californica
Carex livida
Carex woodii
Carex biltmoreana
Carex panicea
Carex meadii
Carex tetanica
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P11 Fuirena scirpoidea pg 34.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Fuirena scirpoidea
Fuirena longa
Fuirena breviseta
Fuirena squarrosa
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA23 P110 Carex hendersonii pg 434.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex hendersonii
Carex styloflexa
Carex chapmanii
Carex crebriflora
Carex leptonervia
Carex laxiflora
Carex striatula
Carex radfordii
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P111 Carex purpurifera pg 437.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex purpurifera
Carex manhartii
Carex ormostachya
Carex gracilescens
Carex blanda
Carex kraliana
Carex albursina
Carex gholsonii
Carex granularis
Carex microdonta
Carex crawei
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P112 Carex abscondita pg 445.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex abscondita
Carex cumberlandensis
Carex digitalis var. digitalis
Carex digitalis var. macropoda
Carex laxiculmis var. laxiculmis
Carex laxiculmis var. copulata
Carex austrocaroliniana
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P113 Carex plantaginea pg 448.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex plantaginea
Carex careyana
Carex platyphylla
Carex ouachitana
Carex impressinervia
Carex hitchcockiana
Carex brysonii
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P114 Carex oligocarpa pg 453.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex oligocarpa
Carex calcifugens
Carex edwardsiana
Carex bulbostylis
Carex paeninsulae
Carex thornei
Carex acidicola
Carex planispicata
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Barbara Alongi
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P115 Carex flaccosperma pg 457.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex flaccosperma
Carex glaucodea
Carex pigra
Carex conoidea
Carex grisea
Carex corrugata
Carex amphibola
Carex godfreyi
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P116 Carex prasina pg 464.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex prasina
Carex davisii
Carex oxylepis
Carex formosa
Carex gracillima
Carex roanensis
Carex aestivalis
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P117 Carex arctata pg 468.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex arctata
Carex assiniboinensis
Carex debilis var. debilis
Carex debilis var. rudgei
Carex venusta
Carex castanea
Carex misera
Carex mendocinensis
Carex gynodynama
Carex hirtissima
Carex sylvatica
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P118 Carex sprengelii pg 473.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex sprengelii
Carex cherokeensis
Carex obispoensis
Carex williamsii
Carex capillaris
Carex krausei
Carex tiogana
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P119 Carex petricosa var petricosa pg 479.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex petricosa var. petricosa
Carex petricosa var. misandroides
Carex fuliginosa
Carex albida
Carex fissuricola
Carex lemmonii
Carex luzulifolia
Carex luzulina var. luzulina
Carex luzulina var. ablata
Carex atrofusca
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P12 Fuirena bushii pg 36.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Fuirena bushii
Fuirena simplex var. simplex
Fuirena simplex var. aristulata
Fuirena pumila
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
John Myers
FNA23 P120 Carex swanii pg 483.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex swanii
Carex virescens
Carex hirsutella
Carex complanata
Carex caroliniana
Carex bushii
Carex pallescens
Carex torreyi
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P121 Carex whitneyi pg 487.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex scabrata
Carex amplifolia
Carex planostachys
Carex lativena
Carex tenax
Carex dasycarpa
Carex triquetra
Carex hirtifolia
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P122 Carex lacustris pg 493.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex whitneyi
Carex lacustris
Carex hyalinolepis
Carex acutiformis
Carex striata
Carex heterostachya
Carex pumila
Carex melanostachya
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P123 Carex halliana pg 496.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex halliana
Carex congdonii
Carex sartwelliana
Carex houghtoniana
Carex pellita
Carex lasiocarpa
Carex vestita
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P124 Carex atherodes pg 500.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex atherodes
Carex trichocarpa
Carex laeviconica
Carex sheldonii
Carex hirta
Carex saxatilis
Carex membranacea
Carex rotundata
Carex oligosperma
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P125 Carex elliottii pg 505.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex elliottii
Carex bullata
Carex tuckermanii
Carex vesicaria
Carex exsiccata
Carex rostrata
Carex retrorsa
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P126 Carex lurida pg 508.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex lurida
Carex baileyi
Carex schweinitzii
Carex hystericina
Carex thurberi
Carex pseudocyperus
Carex comosa
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P127 Carex grayi pg 513.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex grayi
Carex intumescens
Carex louisianica
Carex lupulina
Carex lupuliformis
Carex gigantea
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P128 Carex turgescens pg 516.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex turgescens
Carex michauxiana
Carex folliculata
Carex lonchocarpa
Carex collinsii
Carex frankii
Carex aureolensis
Carex squarrosa
Carex typhina
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P129 Carex shortiana pg 521.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex shortiana
Carex extensa
Carex distans
Carex diluta
Carex hostiana
Carex flava
Carex cryptolepis
Carex lutea
Carex viridula subsp. viridula
Carex viridula var. viridula
Carex viridula subsp. brachyrrhyncha
Carex viridula var. elatior
Carex viridula var. saxilittoralis
Carex viridula subsp. oedocarpa
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P13 Bolboschoenus maritimus subsp maritimus pg 40 (not final).jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Bolboschoenus maritimus subsp. maritimus
Bolboschoenus maritimus subsp. paludosus
Bolboschoenus robustus
Bolboschoenus fluviatilis
Bolboschoenus novae-angliae
Bolboschoenus glaucus
FNA23 P130 Carex circinata pg 529.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex globosa
Carex brainerdii
Carex circinata
Carex anthoxanthea
Carex micropoda
Carex nigricans
Carex microglochin
Carex pauciflora
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P131 Carex deflexa var deflexa pg 536.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex deflexa var. deflexa
Carex deflexa var. boottii
Carex rossii
Carex pityophila
Carex geophila
Carex brevicaulis
Carex umbellata
Carex tonsa var. tonsa
Carex tonsa var. rugosperma
Carex communis var. communis
Carex communis var. amplisquama
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P132 Carex novae-angliae pg 541.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex novae-angliae
Carex peckii
Carex albicans var. albicans
Carex albicans var. emmonsii
Carex albicans var. australis
Carex nigromarginata
Carex floridana
Carex turbinata
Carex inops subsp. inops
Carex inops subsp. heliophila
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P133 Carex serpenticola pg 545.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex serpenticola
Carex pensylvanica
Carex lucorum var. lucorum
Carex lucorum var. austrolucorum
Carex pedunculata
Carex richardsonii
Carex concinnoides
Carex concinna
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P134 Carex baltzellii pg 550.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex baltzellii
Carex picta
Carex scirpoidea subsp. scirpoidea
Carex scirpoidea subsp. convoluta
Carex scirpoidea subsp. pseudoscirpoidea
Carex scirpoidea subsp. stenochlaena
Carex curatorum
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P135 Carex scabriuscula pg 553.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex scabriuscula
Carex caryophyllea
Carex eburnea
Carex mckittrickensis
Carex obtusata
Carex rupestris
Carex supina subsp. spaniocarpa
Carex glacialis
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P136 Carex willdenowii pg 560.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex willdenowii
Carex basiantha
Carex superata
Carex jamesii
Carex juniperorum
Carex timida
Carex saximontana
Carex backii
Carex cordillerana
Carex latebracteata
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P137 Carex geyeri pg 564.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex geyeri
Carex tompkinsii
Carex multicaulis
Carex leptalea
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P138 Carex oreocharis pg 567.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex oreocharis
Carex filifolia var. filifolia
Carex filifolia var. erostrata
Carex elynoides
Carex nardina
Carex capitata
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P139 Carex breweri pg 570.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Carex breweri
Carex engelmannii
Carex subnigricans
Carex muriculata
Cymophyllus fraserianus
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
Susan A. Reznicek
FNA23 P14 Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani pg 48.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani
Schoenoplectus acutus var. acutus
Schoenoplectus acutus var. occidentalis
Schoenoplectus heterochaetus
Schoenoplectus triqueter
Schoenoplectus californicus
Susan A. Reznicek Elizabeth Zimmerman
Susan A. Reznicek Elizabeth Zimmerman
Susan A. Reznicek Elizabeth Zimmerman
Susan A. Reznicek Elizabeth Zimmerman
Susan A. Reznicek Elizabeth Zimmerman
Susan A. Reznicek Elizabeth Zimmerman
FNA23 P15 Schoenoplectus pungens pg 51.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Schoenoplectus deltarum
Schoenoplectus americanus
Schoenoplectus etuberculatus
Schoenoplectus torreyi
Schoenoplectus subterminalis
Schoenoplectus pungens var. pungens
Schoenoplectus pungens var. badius
Schoenoplectus pungens var. longispicatus
Susan A. Reznicek Elizabeth Zimmerman
Susan A. Reznicek Elizabeth Zimmerman
Susan A. Reznicek
Elizabeth Zimmerman
Susan A. Reznicek
Elizabeth Zimmerman
Susan A. Reznicek
Elizabeth Zimmerman
FNA23 P16 Schoenoplectus purshianus var purshianus pg 55.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Schoenoplectus purshianus var. purshianus
Schoenoplectus smithii
Schoenoplectus mucronatus
Schoenoplectus saximontanus
Schoenoplectus hallii
Schoenoplectus erectus subsp. raynalii
Susan A. Reznicek
Elizabeth Zimmerman
Susan A. Reznicek
Elizabeth Zimmerman
Susan A. Reznicek
Elizabeth Zimmerman
Susan A. Reznicek
Elizabeth Zimmerman
Susan A. Reznicek
Elizabeth Zimmerman
Susan A. Reznicek
Elizabeth Zimmerman
FNA23 P17 Eleocharis palustris pg 73.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Eleocharis erythropoda
Eleocharis uniglumis
Eleocharis palustris
Eleocharis mamillata
Eleocharis macrostachya
Elizabeth Zimmerman
Elizabeth Zimmerman
Elizabeth Zimmerman
Elizabeth Zimmerman
Elizabeth Zimmerman
FNA23 P18 Eleocharis kamtschatica pg 77.jpegCyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Cyperaceae
Eleocharis kamtschatica
Eleocharis ambigens
Eleocharis fallax
Eleocharis montana
Eleocharis ravenelii
Elizabeth Zimmerman
Elizabeth Zimmerman
Elizabeth Zimmerman
Elizabeth Zimmerman
Elizabeth Zimmerman
... further results

Key

1 Flowers and achenes partially to completely enclosed in scalelike structure (perigynium); perigynium in axil of scale; flowers unisexual (see Plate 1. A, B, C). > 2
1 Flowers and achenes not enclosed in scalelike perigynium; flowers in axil of scale; flowers usually bisexual, sometimes some, rarely all, flowers unisexual. > 4
2 Perigynia open to 1 side, at least some containing 1–3 staminate flowers as well as 1 pistillate flower (see Plate 1. A). Kobresia
2 Perigynia closed except for pore at tip through which style protrudes, always containing only 1 pistillate flower (see Plate 1. B, C). > 3
3 Culms usually with several blade-bearing leaves, sometimes all basal; blades flat, V-shaped, M-shaped, rarely terete or involute in cross section, commonly less than 2 cm wide, if flat with distinct midrib. Carex
3 Culms with 1(–2) basal leaves; blades flat, usually 2–5 cm wide, without evident midrib. Cymophyllus
4 Flowers with perianth of 1 or more hairs, bristles, scales, or bristles and scales, usually persistent on achene (see Plate 1. D, E, F; Plate 2. A). > 5
4 Flowers without perianth of hairs, bristles, or scales. > 27
5 Perianth of hairs or bristles, much exceeding subtending scales in fruit, more than 2 times as long as achene, including persistent style base, if present (see Plate 1. D). > 6
5 Perianth not or scarcely exceeding subtending scales in fruit, not more than 2 times as long as achene, including persistent style base, if present (see Plate 1. E, F; Plate 2. A). > 9
6 Perianth hairs strongly curled, tangled in fruit (woolly in appearance). Scirpus
6 Perianth hairs ± straight, not tangled (silky in appearance). > 7
7 Perianth hairs (8–)10+ in each flower; spikelets (excluding hairs) 1+ cm. Eriophorum
7 Perianth hairs mostly 6 in each flower; spikelets (excluding hairs) not more than 1 cm. > 8
8 Perianth hairs antrorsely barbed; leaf blades to 25 cm × 2.5–4 mm. Eriophorum
8 Perianth hairs smooth; leaf blades less than 1 cm × 1 mm. Trichophorum
9 Spikelets compressed laterally; scales 2-ranked at least in proximal 1/2, keeled (see Plate 2. C). > 10
9 Spikelets ± rounded in cross section; scales spirally arranged, not keeled (distichous in Websteria) (see Plate 2. D). > 13
10 Achenes biconvex; styles 2-fid. > 11
10 Achenes trigonous; styles 3-fid. > 12
11 Persistent style base of achene enlarged (see Plate 2. B). Rhynchospora
11 Persistent style base of achene linear. Dulichium
12 Achenes with persistent enlarged style base; culms simple with 1 spikelet; scales pale or yellow-brown to red-brown (see Plate 2. A). Eleocharis
12 Achenes without persistent enlarged style base; culms distally branched with several spikelets; scales black or very dark purple. Schoenus
13 Perianth consisting of scales or of 3 scales and 3 bristles (see Plate 1. E, F). > 14
13 Perianth consisting of hairs or bristles, bristles rarely somewhat flattened and straplike (see Plate 2. A). > 15
14 Perianth consisting of 3 bristles and 3 spatulate scales; leaves usually hairy, hairs sometimes confined to junction of blade and sheath (see Plate 1. E). Fuirena
14 Perianth consisting of 1–2 scales; leaves glabrous (see Plate 2. F). Lipocarpha
15 Culms apparently without blade-bearing leaves; leaves absent or consisting only of sheaths. > 16
15 Culms with blade-bearing leaves; at least distal leaves with blades 5+ mm. > 18
16 Spikelets consisting of 2 scales, distal scale subtending flower; culms with branches in successive false whorls, which terminate in clusters of leaves essentially indistinguishable from stems; spikelets borne singly on branches arising from among leaves. Websteria
16 Spikelets with 4+ scales and 2+ flowers; culms unbranched except sometimes in inflorescence; either 1 terminal spikelet or several spikelets in branched inflorescence. > 17
17 Style base enlarged, persistent in fruit, usually clearly differentiated from achene; culms with 1 spikelet (see Plate 2. A). Eleocharis
17 Style base not or scarcely enlarged, deciduous in fruit; culms usually with several spikelets in branched though sometimes congested inflorescence. Schoenoplectus
18 Style base enlarged, persistent as differentiated tubercle on achene (see Plate 2. A, B). > 19
18 Style base not or only slightly enlarged, deciduous or small portion persistent as undifferentiated beak. > 20
19 Culms unbranched, with 1 spikelet; spikelets with 1 proximal scale empty. Eleocharis
19 Culms usually distally branched, with more than 1 spikelet; spikelets usually with 2+ proximal scales empty. Rhynchospora
20 Spikelets 2+, arranged in distichous spike. Blysmopsis
20 Spikelets 1–500, arranged in panicle or clustered into 1 or more heads or solitary. > 21
21 Leaf blades and bracts with prominent midrib forming keel on abaxial surface, or blades folded along midrib; inflorescences obviously terminal (see Plate 2. F). > 22
21 Leaf blades and bracts various, midrib not forming prominent keel on abaxial surface, sometimes with several ribs equally prominent; proximal bract sometimes erect, as if continuation of culm; inflorescences then appearing lateral. > 23
22 Scales glabrous, never both notched and awned at tip; spikelets less than 3.5(–5) mm diam.; achenes 0.6–1.8 mm, mnutely papillose. Scirpus
22 Scales puberulent on abaxial surface, often glabrescent, notched and awned at tip; spikelets mostly 4–10 mm diam.; achenes 2.3–5.5 mm, smooth. Bolboschoenus
23 Bracts 2+, the proximal 10+ mm, exceeding spikelets by at least 3 mm; spikelets usually 2+. > 24
23 Bracts mostly 1–2, less than 10 mm, shorter than or exceeding spikelet by no more than 3 mm; spikelets always solitary. > 25
24 Proximal leaf sheaths often disintegrating into fibers; stems and leaf blades tough, wiry. Amphiscirpus
24 Proximal leaf sheaths never disintegrating into fibers; leaf blades soft, herbaceous. Schoenoplectus
25 Anthers 3 mm; achenes 2.5–3.5 mm. Schoenoplectus
25 Anthers 1–2.5 mm; achenes 1.5–2.5 mm. > 26
26 Culms with all leaves basal; sheaths often disintegrating into fibers; perianth bristles retrorsely spinulose. Amphiscirpus
26 Culms with bladeless sheaths or distal sheaths with blade to 5 mm; sheaths not fibrous; perianth bristles smooth or scabrous. Trichophorum
27 Spikelets with scales arranged in 2 rows, at least proximally, commonly compressed; scales keeled (see Plate 2. C). > 28
27 Spikelets with scales spirally arranged or arranged in more than 2 rows, usually not compressed; scales not keeled (see Plate 2. D). > 32
28 Spikelets with 1–2+ proximal scales empty. > 29
28 Spikelets usually with all scales subtending flowers. > 30
29 Inflorescences of 1–5 straw-colored spikelets. Abildgaardia
29 Inflorescences of (1–)10–25 black or dark purple spikelets. Schoenus
30 Styles 3-fid; achenes trigonous. Cyperus
30 Styles 2-fid; achenes flat to biconvex. > 31
31 Spikelets with 5–many scales; inflorescences variously arranged. Cyperus
31 Spikelets with 1–3 scales; inflorescences with 1–4 dense spikes. Kyllinga
32 Style base enlarged, persistent in fruit as differentiated or conic apical tubercle (see Plate 2. A, B). > 33
32 Style base not or scarcely enlarged, deciduous or undifferentiated portion persisting as cylindric beak. > 35
33 Culms with 1 spikelet, without blade-bearing leaves or with blade not exceeding 4 mm. Eleocharis
33 Culms with inflorescences of 2+ spikelets, with 1+ blade-bearing leaves usually much exceeding 4 mm. > 34
34 Mouth of leaf sheaths fimbriate-ciliate; styles 3-fid; achenes trigonous. Bulbostylis
34 Mouth of leaf sheaths glabrous; styles usually 2-fid; achenes usually biconvex. Rhynchospora
35 Flowers unisexual; spikelets with only one pistillate flower or entirely staminate (see Plate 2. E). Scleria
35 Flowers usually bisexual; spikelets usually with 2+ bisexual flowers. > 36
36 Leaves ligulate, ligules membranous or row of hairs or cilia (see Plate 2. F). > 37
36 Leaves not ligulate, rarely with lateral groups of hairs at junction of blade and sheath. > 42
37 Styles 2-fid; achenes biconvex. > 38
37 Styles 3-fid; achenes trigonous. > 39
38 Spikelets with all scales subtending flower. Scirpus
38 Spikelets with proximal 1–2+ scales empty. Fimbristylis
39 Culms with single terminal spikelet. Trichophorum
39 Culms with 2+ spikelets. > 40
40 Leaf blades and bracts not prominently keeled on abaxial surface. Fimbristylis
40 Leaf blades and bracts with midrib forming prominent keel on abaxial surface. > 41
41 Inflorescence bracts not ciliate; scales not spinose. Scirpus
41 Inflorescence bracts ciliate proximally; scales with spinose tip. Oxycaryum
42 Leaves with 2 lateral groups of hairs (at least some hairs 0.3 mm) at junction of blade and sheath. Bulbostylis
42 Leaves glabrous or with only short hairs at junction of blade and sheath. > 43
43 Inflorescences apparently lateral; proximal bract erect, appearing to be continuation of stem (see Plate 2. G). > 44
43 Inflorescences evidently terminal (sometimes some axillary); bracts ascending or spreading, none appearing to be continuation of stem. > 46
44 Achenes faintly to prominently rugose or transversely ridged. Schoenoplectus
44 Achenes smooth, papillose, or longitudinally ridged. > 45
45 Spikelets with 8–25 scales. Isolepis
45 Spikelets with (1–)3 scales. Lipocarpha
46 Spikelets with all scales subtending flowers. Isolepis
46 Spikelets with 1+ proximal scales empty. > 47
47 Styles 2-fid; achenes biconvex. Fimbristylis
47 Styles 3-fid; achenes trigonous or round in cross section. > 48
48 Plants annual, not rhizomatous; widest leaves not more than 2 mm wide; achenes usually 1.5 mm or less, reticulate-honeycombed. Fimbristylis
48 Plants perennial, rhizomatous; widest leaves usually more than 2 mm wide; achenes 1.5–3 mm, smooth or rugose. > 49
49 Inflorescences terminal, capitate; culms not more than 20 cm. Remirea
49 Inflorescences terminal or some lateral, corymbose or subcapitate; culms usually 70+ cm. Cladium
... more about "Cyperaceae"
Peter W. Ball +, A. A. Reznicek +  and David F. Murray +
Jussieu +
shortened +
glumaceous +  and foliaceous +
2-ranked +  and arranged +
ascending +  and appressed +
parallel +  and divergent +
terete +, rolled +  and plicate +
Sedge Family +
Worldwide +
hypogynous +  and subtending +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
biconvex +  and trigonous +
multi-ranked +, 2-ranked +, 3-ranked +  and alternate +
cauline +  and basal +
with (1-)3-6(-30) bristles and/or scales +
2-3(-4)-carpellate +
3 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
adventitious +
basal +  and proximal +
2-keeled +
cylindric +
septate +, hollow +  and solid +
compressed +, terete +  and trigonous +
papillate +
Cyperaceae +
not +, stoloniferous +  and rhizomatous +
perennial +  and annual +
herb +, not +  and cespitose +