Carex exsiccata

L. H. Bailey

Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 1: 6. 1889.

IllustratedEndemic
Basionyms: Carex vesicaria var. major Boott in W. J. Hooker, Fl. Bor.-Amer. 2: 221. 1839
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 23. Treatment on page 506. Mentioned on page 503, 505.

Plants cespitose; rhizomes short or inconspicuous. Culms trigonous in cross-section, 30–100 cm, scabrous-angled distally. Leaves: basal sheaths reddish purple, thickened, not spongy; ligules longer than wide; blades mid to dark green, flat to W-shaped, widest leaves 2.5–6.2 mm wide, smooth adaxially. Inflorescences 10–36 cm; proximal bract 12–55 cm, exceeding but not more than 2.5 times as long as inflorescence; proximal 2–4 (–5) spikes pistillate, erect, ca. 20–150-flowered, cylindric; terminal 2–3 spikes staminate, well elevated beyond summit of separate pistillate spikes. Pistillate scales lanceolate to ovate, 2.6–5.5 × 0.8–2 mm, shorter than perigynia, margins entire, apex acute to acuminate, awnless. Perigynia ascending, often green or straw colored, strongly 9–20-veined, veins running into beak, lanceolate, 7.5–10.1 × 1.5–2.4 (–2.7) mm, 3.4–5 times as long as wide, leathery, apex gradually tapered; beak indistinct, 1.5–3 mm, bidentate, smooth, teeth straight, 0.2–0.9 mm. Stigmas 3. Achenes brown, symmetric, not indented, trigonous, smooth.


Phenology: Fruiting Jun–Sep.
Habitat: Lake, pond, and river shores, marshes, sedge meadows, often in shallow water
Elevation: 0–1500 m

Distribution

V23 942-distribution-map.jpg

B.C., Calif., Idaho, Mont., Oreg., Wash.

Discussion

Carex exsiccata is regarded by some authors, with some justification, as C. vesicaria var. major. It is a coarser plant with leathery, lanceolate perigynia gradually tapered to the apex that occurs at lower elevations and is usually readily distinguishable although some plants from the Cascades are difficult to place. In the west, typical C. vesicaria occurs mostly above 1400 m. Some authors (B. Boivin 1967–1979; T. M. C. Taylor 1983) treat all western plants as C. exsiccata, distinct from the eastern North American and Eurasian C. vesicaria. The Rocky Mountain, Cascade Range, and Sierra Nevada plants do not differ substantially from eastern plants, except that sometimes they have darker perigynia and scales.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"+timesaslongasinflorescence" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Carex exsiccata"
trigonous;not indented +
not papillose +
A. A. Reznicek +  and Bruce A. Ford +
L. H. Bailey +
shortened +
truncate +  and rounded +
Carex vesicaria var. major +
indistinct +
bidentate +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
flat +  and w-shaped +
0mm;20mm +
glumaceous +  and foliaceous +
2-ranked +  and arranged +
ascending +  and appressed +
scale-like +  and leaflike +
parallel +  and divergent +
terete +, rolled +  and plicate +
brown +, reddish-brown +  and reddish purple +
scabrous-angled +  and trigonous +
30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br /> (100 cm1,000 mm <br />1 m <br />) +
B.C. +, Calif. +, Idaho +, Mont. +, Oreg. +  and Wash. +
0–1500 m +
open +, pistillate +  and staminate +
hypogynous +  and subtending +
biconvex +  and trigonous +
Lake, pond, and river shores, marshes, sedge meadows, often in shallow water +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (36 cm360 mm <br />0.36 m <br />) +
prophyllate +, pedunculate +  and pistillate +
multi-ranked +, 2-ranked +, 3-ranked +  and alternate +
basal +  and cauline +
longer than wide +
with (1-)3-6(-30) bristles and/or scales +
straw colored +  and green +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
Fruiting Jun–Sep. +
2-3(-4)-carpellate +
3 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
short-sheathed +, sheathless +  and leaflike +
12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br /> (55 cm550 mm <br />0.55 m <br />) +
Mem. Torrey Bot. Club +
inconspicuous +
adventitious +
green +  and dark-brown +
0.26 cm2.6 mm <br />0.0026 m <br /> (0.55 cm5.5 mm <br />0.0055 m <br />) +
basal +  and proximal +
lanceolate;ovate +
0.8mm;2mm +
septate-nodulose +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
pistillate +, staminate +  and 20-150-flowered +
cylindric +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
septate +, hollow +  and solid +
compressed +, terete +  and trigonous +
papillate +
persistent +
2-3(-4)-fid +
Carex exsiccata +
Carex sect. Vesicariae +
species +
straight +
0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br /> (0.09 cm0.9 mm <br />9.0e-4 m <br />) +
0.24 cm2.4 mm <br />0.0024 m <br /> (0.27 cm2.7 mm <br />0.0027 m <br />) +
0.75 cm7.5 mm <br />0.0075 m <br /> (1.01 cm10.1 mm <br />0.0101 m <br />) +
leathery +
1.5mm +  and 2.4mm +
plant +  and cespitose +
2.5mm +  and 6.2mm +