Carex granularis

Muhlenberg ex Willdenow

Sp. Pl. 4(1): 279. 1805.

Common names: Carex granuleux
IllustratedEndemic
Synonyms: Carex granularis var. haleana (Olney) Porter Carex haleana Mackenzie Carex rectior Britton Carex shriveri
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 23. Treatment on page 441. Mentioned on page 437, 442, 460.

Rhizomes short or inconspicuous. Culms in dense tufts, 13–70 (–100) cm. Leaves not green, usually glaucous, cauline blades 2–27 cm × 1.2–5.3 mm. Inflorescnecs: peduncle of terminal spike 0.1–3.5 cm; bracts (middle and distal ones) overtopping spikes; ligule of proximal bract (2–) 3–17.5 (–26) mm; longest bract blade (per plant) of distal lateral spike 4.1–15.8 cm. Proximal spikes usually arising from distal 1/2 of culms, 6–27 (–32) × 3–6 mm. Terminal spike 6–35 (–43) mm, shorter than to barely exceeding and overlapping distal lateral spike. Pistillate scales ovate or ovateoblong, 1.4–2.5 (–2.9) × 0.8–1.4 mm. Staminate scales with apex acute to acuminate or cuspidate. Anthers 1.6–2.9 mm. Perigynia olive to yellowish green or at age yellowish-brown, elliptic or oblong-ovoid to obovoid, 2.2–3.1 (–3.7) × 1.2–1.8 (–2) mm, 1.4–2.2 (–2.4) times as long as thick; beak 0.1–0.3 mm, orifice nearly entire. Achenes 1.8–2.3 × 1–1.4 mm. 2n = 36, 38, 40, 42.


Phenology: Fruiting late spring–early summer (late Apr–Jul).
Habitat: Low, open ground, meadows, fens, glades, or shores, ditches, moist woods, and bottomland swamps, especially along borders, clearings, streams, trails, usually in clayey or marly soils, frequently weedy in limestone districts
Elevation: 0–700 m

Distribution

V23 810-distribution-map.jpg

Man., N.B., N.S., Ont., Que., Sask., Ala., Ark., Conn., Del., D.C., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Nebr., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Pa., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis., Wyo.

Discussion

Carex granularis is widely distributed and common across the eastern half of the United States and southeastern Canada, but not on the Coastal Plain or in the high Appalachians. It varies not only in the dimensions and ultimate overall shape of the perigynia but also in less tangible features, such as texture, color, and amount of red speckling on the perigynia, prominence of perigynia veins, and papillosity of achene surface. One phase distinguished by the smaller, slightly less inflated, more ellipsoid perigynia with more pointed apices and finer veins has often been treated as C. haleana or C. shriveri; it intergrades rather freely with typical C. granularis. Because of the subtlety of the distinctions, the intergradation in morphology, and the difficulties presented by specimens in immature stages or distorted during preparation, we maintain C. granularis as a single variable species without infraspecific taxa. An apparent hybrid between C. granularis and C. flaccosperma Dewey or C. glaucodea Tuckerman ex Olney is known from one locality in Arkansas.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Carex granularis"
42 +, 40 +, 38 +  and 36 +
0.18 cm1.8 mm <br />0.0018 m <br /> (0.23 cm2.3 mm <br />0.0023 m <br />) +
trigonous +
smaller +
1mm;1.4mm +
yellowish-brown +
0.16 cm1.6 mm <br />0.0016 m <br /> (0.29 cm2.9 mm <br />0.0029 m <br />) +
Theodore S. Cochrane +  and Robert F. C. Naczi +
Muhlenberg ex Willdenow +
shortened +
rounded +
Granulares +
0.01 cm0.1 mm <br />1.0e-4 m <br /> (0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br />) +
m--shaped +
0mm;20mm +
glumaceous +  and foliaceous +
2-ranked +  and arranged +
1.75 cm17.5 mm <br />0.0175 m <br /> (2.6 cm26 mm <br />0.026 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (1.75 cm17.5 mm <br />0.0175 m <br />) +
ascending +  and appressed +
scale-like +  and leaflike +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (27 cm270 mm <br />0.27 m <br />) +
parallel +  and divergent +
terete +, rolled +  and plicate +
Carex granuleux +
round +  and trigonous +
13 cm130 mm <br />0.13 m <br /> (70 cm700 mm <br />0.7 m <br />) +
Man. +, N.B. +, N.S. +, Ont. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Ala. +, Ark. +, Conn. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, La. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, Nebr. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, N.Dak. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Pa. +, S.Dak. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Vt. +, Va. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +  and Wyo. +
0–700 m +
open +, pistillate +  and staminate +
hypogynous +  and subtending +
biconvex +  and trigonous +
Low, open ground, meadows, fens, glades, or shores, ditches, moist woods, and bottomland swamps, especially along borders, clearings, streams, trails, usually in clayey or marly soils, frequently weedy in limestone districts +
multi-ranked +, 2-ranked +, 3-ranked +  and alternate +
basal +  and cauline +
entire;minutely bidentulate +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
with (1-)3-6(-30) bristles and/or scales +
0.31 cm3.1 mm <br />0.0031 m <br /> (0.37 cm3.7 mm <br />0.0037 m <br />) +
0.18 cm1.8 mm <br />0.0018 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
at age +, olive +  and yellowish green +
0.22 cm2.2 mm <br />0.0022 m <br /> (0.31 cm3.1 mm <br />0.0031 m <br />) +
1.4-2.2(-2.4) times as long as thick +
ascending +  and spreading +
0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br /> (0.18 cm1.8 mm <br />0.0018 m <br />) +
Fruiting late spring–early summer (late Apr–Jul). +
2-3(-4)-carpellate +
3 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
long-sheathing +  and leaflike +
short-awned +  and acuminate +
2.7 cm27 mm <br />0.027 m <br /> (3.2 cm32 mm <br />0.032 m <br />) +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (2.7 cm27 mm <br />0.027 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
inconspicuous +
adventitious +
staminate +  and pistillate +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.29 cm2.9 mm <br />0.0029 m <br />) +
0.14 cm1.4 mm <br />0.0014 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
basal +  and proximal +
ovateoblong;ovate +
0.8mm;1.4mm +
cylindric +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
prophyllate +, pedunculate +  and staminate +
4.1 cm41 mm <br />0.041 m <br /> (15.8 cm158 mm <br />0.158 m <br />) +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
septate +, hollow +  and solid +
compressed +, terete +  and trigonous +
papillate +
sessile +  and veined +
rhomboid;broadly ovoid obovoid or subglobose obscurely trigonous +
deciduous +
2-3(-4)-fid +
Carex granularis var. haleana +, Carex haleana +, Carex rectior +  and Carex shriveri +
Carex granularis +
Carex sect. Granulares +
species +
3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br /> (4.3 cm43 mm <br />0.043 m <br />) +
shorter than to barely exceeding +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br />) +
plant +, not +  and cespitose +