Carex gynocrates

Wormskjöld ex Drejer

Naturhist. Tidsskr. 3: 434. 1841.

Common names: Carex à côtes
Illustrated
Synonyms: Carex dioica subsp. gynocrates (Wormskjöld ex Drejer) Hultén Carex dioica var. gynocrates (Wormskjöld ex Drejer) Ostenfeld
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 23. Treatment on page 300. Mentioned on page 296, 299, 301, 310.

Rhizomes horizontal, threadlike, 0.3–0.8 mm in diam. Culms arising singly or 2–3 together, ± terete, scarcely furrowed, 2–30 cm; lateral sterile shoots often with prostrate or curved base. Leaf-blades filiform, 2–15 cm × 0.3–0.7 mm. Inflorescence androgynous (14%), wholly staminate (12%), or wholly pistillate (74%); staminate spike 8–16 mm; pistillate spike ± densely 4–15 (–18) -flowered, transversely broadly oblong to ovoid-oblong or oblong, 5–14 × 4–8 mm. Pistillate scales uniformly light to dark-brown or with pale or green midvein, margins scarious, narrow to broad. Perigynia becoming divergent or slightly deflexed, yellow, olive, or at maturity chestnut-brown, obscurely to evidently 17–20-striate (marginal ribs seldom prominent), oblong-ovoid, biconvex, 2.9–3.4 × 1.2–1.7 mm; beak 0.5 mm, margins glabrous or sparsely scabrid. Achenes 1.5–1.7 × 1–1.2 mm. 2n = 46, 48.


Phenology: Fruiting summer (Jun–Aug, Sep in subarctic Quebec and Greenland).
Habitat: Wet peaty ground, usually in openings in coniferous swamps and conifer-hardwood stands, less often in poor fens, boggy swales (flarks) and alder thickets, also subalpine meadows, tundra, outwash gravel and seepage areas, usually on calcareous substrates
Elevation: 0–3100 m

Distribution

V23 523-distribution-map.jpg

Greenland, St. Pierre and Miquelon, Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.W.T., N.S., Nunavut, Ont., Que., Sask., Yukon, Alaska, Colo., Idaho, Maine, Mich., Minn., Mont., Nev., N.Y., N.Dak., Oreg., Pa., Utah, Wis., Wyo., Asia (e Siberia)

Discussion

Chiefly boreal, Carex gynocrates is infrequent to rare southward, especially in the western cordillera. The only Pennsylvania collection was made by Goldie at Pittsburgh between 1819 and 1822.

Opinions differ about the taxonomic rank of the North American and east Asian (Siberian) populations, which have chromosome counts of 2n = 48, 50, and 70, and perhaps are best segregated as Carex dioica subsp. gynocrates (E. Hultén 1962). The latter is only weakly distinguished from the Eurasian subsp. dioica, which has chromosome counts of 2n = 52 and 60, and tends to be less strongly dioecious, and has paler pistillate scales and ventrally more convex perigynia.

The hybrid between Carex gynocrates and C. maritima, C. ×langeana Fernald (pro sp.) [C. dutillyi O’Neill & Duman], strongly resembles C. maritima; the leaves are slightly scabrous-roughened toward the apex; the heads are smaller, ellipsoid to ovoid-oblong and only 3–5 mm thick; the perigynia are appressed-ascending and ± flat; and the achenes are not well-developed. Carex ×langeana is reported as forming close turf on dry, peaty limestone barrens in Newfoundland (M. L. Fernald 1933, 1950) and as occasional upon humid rocks and coastal fens along Hudson Bay (J. Deshaye and J. Cayouette 1988). The hybrid should be expected where the parents coexist and has been reported from most of those areas (J. Cayouette and P. M. Catling 1992), although the report of the hybrid from Alaska by H. J. Scoggan (1978–1979) is based on a specimen of C. maritima.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"not undefined" is not a number.

... more about "Carex gynocrates"
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.17 cm1.7 mm <br />0.0017 m <br />) +
biconvex +
1mm;1.2mm +
Theodore S. Cochrane +
Wormskjöld ex Drejer +
shortened +
rounded +  and broadly cuneate +
bidentulate +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (?) +
v--shaped +  and filiform +
0mm;20mm +
glumaceous +  and foliaceous +
2-ranked +  and arranged +
ascending +  and appressed +
scale-like +  and leaflike +
parallel +  and divergent +
terete +, rolled +  and plicate +
Carex à côtes +
0mm +  and 1mm +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
Greenland +, St. Pierre and Miquelon +, Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. +, N.W.T. +, N.S. +, Nunavut +, Ont. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Yukon +, Alaska +, Colo. +, Idaho +, Maine +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mont. +, Nev. +, N.Y. +, N.Dak. +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, Utah +, Wis. +, Wyo. +  and Asia (e Siberia) +
0–3100 m +
open +, pistillate +  and staminate +
hypogynous +  and subtending +
biconvex +  and trigonous +
Wet peaty ground, usually in openings in coniferous swamps and conifer-hardwood stands, less often in poor fens, boggy swales (flarks) and alder thickets, also subalpine meadows, tundra, outwash gravel and seepage areas, usually on calcareous substrates +
pistillate +  and staminate +
[74%] +, [12%] +  and [14%] +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br /> (0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br />) +
multi-ranked +, 2-ranked +, 3-ranked +  and alternate +
basal +  and cauline +
scabrid +  and glabrous +
narrow +  and broad +
green +  and pale +
with (1-)3-6(-30) bristles and/or scales +
stipitate +, veinless +  and veined +
chestnut-brown +  and obscurely evidently 17-20-striate +
0.29 cm2.9 mm <br />0.0029 m <br /> (0.34 cm3.4 mm <br />0.0034 m <br />) +
0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br /> (0.17 cm1.7 mm <br />0.0017 m <br />) +
Fruiting summer (Jun–Aug, Sep in subarctic Quebec and Greenland). +
2-3(-4)-carpellate +
3 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
Naturhist. Tidsskr. +
0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br /> (0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br />) +
thread-like +
adventitious +
with pale or green midvein +, uniformly light +  and dark-brown +
persistent +
basal +  and proximal +
2-keeled +
cylindric +
Illustrated +
4-15(-18)-flowered +, pistillate +  and staminate +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br />) +
androgynous +  and unisexual +
transversely broadly oblong;ovoid-oblong or oblong +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.6 cm16 mm <br />0.016 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
septate +, hollow +  and solid +
compressed +, terete +  and trigonous +
papillate +
deciduous +
2-3(-4)-fid +
Carex dioica subsp. gynocrates +  and Carex dioica var. gynocrates +
Carex gynocrates +
Carex sect. Physoglochin +
species +
plant +, not +  and cespitose +