Carex heteroneura

W. Boott in S. Watson

in S. Watson, Bot. California 2: 239. 1880.

IllustratedEndemic
Synonyms: Carex atrata var. erecta W. Boott Carex quadrifida L. H. Bailey Carex quadrifida var. caeca L. H. Bailey Carex quadrifida var. lenis L. H. Bailey
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 23. Treatment on page 411. Mentioned on page 410.

Plants cespitose. Culms to 25–60 (–100) cm, distally smooth or finely scabrous. Leaves 2–5 mm wide. Inflorescences: proximal bracts shorter than or exceeding inflorescences; spikes oblong or elongate, cylindric or clavate, 7–27 × 5–7 mm; lateral 2–4 (–6) spikes pistillate, proximal ones usually erect, occasionally spreading or pendent, separate, pedunculate, distal ones overlapping, erect, contiguous, short-pedunculate; terminal spike gynecandrous, 1/3–2/3 staminate flowers, rarely staminate, sometimes appearing staminate due to fallen terminal perigynia. Pistillate scales dark-brown to black, margins hyaline, lanceolate, typically shorter and narrower (equaling or slightly longer) than perigynia, midvein lighter colored than body, conspicuous, frequently raised, prominent, apex acute to short-mucronate. Perigynia ascending, pale green or pale-yellow, veinless or obscurely veined, ovate, orbicular or obovate, 2.5–3.5 × 1.75–2.5 mm, apex abruptly beaked, smooth; beak 0.3–0.5 mm, shallowly or deeply bidentate, smooth. Achenes filling proximal 1/2 or less of perigynia.


Phenology: Fruiting Jun–Sep.
Habitat: Stream margins in open forests, moist meadows
Elevation: 2000–3000 m

Distribution

V23 741-distribution-map.jpg

Calif., Nev., Oreg., Utah.

Discussion

Carex heteroneura is variable, especially in the size and shape of the lateral spikes, size and color of perigynia, and length of pistillate scales. The staminate terminal spike of the type is unusual and unrepresentative of the majority of the plants to which the name is applied; intermediate forms exist. It is not surprising that Boott believed the specimens he recognized as C. heteroneura were distinct from those he named in the same publication as C. atrata var. erecta. A. Cronquist (1969), among others, applied the name C. atrata var. erecta broadly to include both C. heteroneura and C. epapillosa. Some intermediates between C. heteroneura and C. epapillosa are found in California, Nevada, and Utah; the vast majority of the specimens can be determined.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Carex heteroneura"
trigonous +
smaller +
papillose +  and smooth +
David F. Murray +
W. Boott in S. Watson +
shortened +
cuneate +  and more or less rounded +
bidentate +
0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br /> (0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br />) +
v--shaped +
0mm;20mm +
glumaceous +  and foliaceous +
2-ranked +  and arranged +
ascending +  and appressed +
scale-like +  and leaflike +
parallel +  and divergent +
terete +, rolled +  and plicate +
papillose +  and smooth +
red +  and purple +
round +  and trigonous +
25 cm250 mm <br />0.25 m <br /> (60 cm600 mm <br />0.6 m <br />) +
short-pedunculate +
contiguous +  and overlapping +
Calif. +, Nev. +, Oreg. +  and Utah. +
2000–3000 m +
hypogynous +  and subtending +
biconvex +  and trigonous +
Stream margins in open forests, moist meadows +
prophyllate +, pedunculate +  and pistillate +
multi-ranked +, 2-ranked +, 3-ranked +  and alternate +
basal +  and cauline +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
lanceolate +
typically shorter and narrower +
lighter colored +
prominent +, raised +  and conspicuous +
with (1-)3-6(-30) bristles and/or scales +
veined +  and veinless +
pale-yellow +  and pale green +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
0.175 cm1.75 mm <br />0.00175 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
Fruiting Jun–Sep. +
2-3(-4)-carpellate +
3 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
scale-like;,;thread-like +
ladder-fibrillose +  and veined +
purple +, tinged red +  and dotted +
pendent +, spreading +  and erect +
in S. Watson, Bot. California +
black without yellowbrown +  and brown +
adventitious +
dark-brown +  and black +
basal +  and proximal +
2-keeled +
cylindric +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (2.7 cm27 mm <br />0.027 m <br />) +
clavate;cylindric;elongate;oblong;clavate;cylindric;elongate;oblong +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
septate +, hollow +  and solid +
compressed +, terete +  and trigonous +
2 +  and 3 +
papillate +
deciduous +
2-3(-4)-fid +
Carex atrata var. erecta +, Carex quadrifida +, Carex quadrifida var. caeca +  and Carex quadrifida var. lenis +
Carex heteroneura +
Carex sect. Racemosae +
species +
stoloniferous +, rhizomatous +  and long +
plant +  and cespitose +