Carex laxiculmis var. copulata

(L. H. Bailey) Fernald

Rhodora 8: 183. 1906.

IllustratedEndemic
Basionym: Carex digitalis var. copulata L. H. Bailey Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 1: 47. 1889
Synonyms: Carex ×copulata (L. H. Bailey) Mackenzie
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 23. Treatment on page 446. Mentioned on page 445.

Leaves usually bright green; widest blade 5.3–8.3 mm wide. Longest staminate spike 6–20 (–23) mm.


Phenology: Fruiting spring–early summer.
Habitat: Low, wet, deciduous or mixed deciduous-evergreen forests, mesic slopes to along edges of springs, seeps, and streams, usually clay soils
Elevation: 0–1000 m

Distribution

V23 822-distribution-map.jpg

Ont., Ala., Ark., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Ky., Mich., Mo., N.C., Ohio, Tenn., Va., W.Va., Wis.

Discussion

Carex laxiculmis var. copulata has been treated as a variety of C. digitalis or C. laxiculmis, as a distinct species, and as a hybrid between C. digitalis and C. laxiculmis. Regular pairing during metaphase-I indicates that C. laxiculmis var. copulata is not a by-product of hybridization (R. F. C. Naczi 1999). In lateral spikes, a proximal sterile scale or scale subtending a staminate flower clearly places the affinity of this variety with C. laxiculmis rather than C. digitalis (C. T. Bryson 1980).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
0.22 cm2.2 mm <br />0.0022 m <br /> (0.32 cm3.2 mm <br />0.0032 m <br />) +
concave;ovoid +
fitting +
1.2mm;1.8mm +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
Charles T. Bryson +  and Robert F. C. Naczi +
(L. H. Bailey) Fernald +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
shortened +
light-brown;white +
tapering +
Carex digitalis var. copulata +
tapering +  and bent +
m--shaped +
0-3.5 times wider than bract blades +
glumaceous +  and foliaceous +
2-ranked +  and arranged +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (11.8 cm118 mm <br />0.118 m <br />) +
ascending +  and appressed +
scale-like +  and leaflike +
0.13 cm1.3 mm <br />0.0013 m <br /> (0.48 cm4.8 mm <br />0.0048 m <br />) +
parallel +  and divergent +
terete +, rolled +  and plicate +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (?) +
purple +  and brown +
9 cm90 mm <br />0.09 m <br /> (48 cm480 mm <br />0.48 m <br />) +
spreading +, ascending +  and erect +
round +  and trigonous +
0.6mm;1mm +
Ont. +, Ala. +, Ark. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Ky. +, Mich. +, Mo. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Tenn. +, Va. +, W.Va. +  and Wis. +
0–1000 m +
subtending +
1 +  and 2 +
biconvex +  and trigonous +
Low, wet, deciduous or mixed deciduous-evergreen forests, mesic slopes to along edges of springs, seeps, and streams, usually clay soils +
prophyllate +, pedunculate +  and pistillate +
8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br /> (36 cm360 mm <br />0.36 m <br />) +
spreading +, ascending +  and erect +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
multi-ranked +, 2-ranked +, 3-ranked +  and alternate +
bright green +
basal +  and cauline +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (2.3 cm23 mm <br />0.023 m <br />) +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
reddish-brown +, hyaline +  and , +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (3.2 cm32 mm <br />0.032 m <br />) +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (9 cm90 mm <br />0.09 m <br />) +
with (1-)3-6(-30) bristles and/or scales +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
Fruiting spring–early summer. +
2-3(-4)-carpellate +
3 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
bladeless +  and leaflike +
adventitious +
staminate +  and pistillate +
0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br /> (0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br />) +
basal +  and proximal +
obovate;keeled +
1mm;1.2mm +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (11.9 cm119 mm <br />0.119 m <br />) +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
cylindric +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
staminate +  and pistillate +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (9.5 cm95 mm <br />0.095 m <br />) +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (2.2 cm22 mm <br />0.022 m <br />) +
basal +  and proximal +
0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
septate +, hollow +  and solid +
compressed +, terete +  and trigonous +
papillate +
deciduous +
2-3(-4)-fid +
slender +
Carex ×copulata +
Carex laxiculmis var. copulata +
Carex laxiculmis +
variety +
plant +  and cespitose +
5.3mm +  and 8.3mm +