Carex maritima

Gunnerus

Fl. Norveg. 2: 131. 1772.

Common names: Carex maritime
Illustrated
Synonyms: Carex incurva Lightfoot Carex maritima var. setina (H. Christ ex Scheutz) Fernald Carex maritima subsp. yukonensis A. E. Porsild
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 23. Treatment on page 310. Mentioned on page 300, 301, 308, 309.

Plants colonial. Culms usually curved, bluntly trigonous, 1–25 (–44) cm smooth-angled distally. Leaves: basal sheaths brown to dark-brown; ligules 0.3–1.2 mm; blades involute, usually ± equaling culms, 0.5–2 mm wide. Inflorescences 0.5–1.6 (–2) cm; spikes ca. (1–) 3–7, essentially indistinguishable in dense ovoid to hemispheric head. Pistillate scales pale-brown to dark-brown, usually with broad whitish hyaline margins, broadly ovate to nearly orbicular, shorter than perigynia, apex obtuse to acute, body shiny, ± translucent. Anthers 1.1–2 mm. Perigynia pale yellowish-brown proximally, darker brown on beak and distally, essentially veinless to finely 3–12-veined abaxially, essentially veinless adaxially, ± inflated, ovate to broadly ovate, (3–) 3.2–5.1 × (1.4–) 1.6–2.3 (–2.7) mm, papery or leathery, dull to satiny; stipe 0.2–0.7 mm; beak 0.5–1 mm, scabrous-margined or, occasionally, smooth.


Phenology: Fruiting Jun–Aug.
Habitat: Beaches, dunes, fresh alluvium, rocky or mineral-rich soils of lake, river, and ocean shores, seepy slopes, fens, rock barrens, mostly near the coasts
Elevation: 0–900 m

Distribution

V23 541-distribution-map.jpg

Greenland, Alta., Man., Nfld. and Labr., N.W.T., Nunavut, Ont., Que., Sask., Yukon, Alaska, South America, Eurasia

Discussion

The inland collections of Carex maritima from Manitoba and Alberta are introductions.

Carex maritima is an extremely widespread and variable species. On exposed headlands, plants can be very tiny in contrast to robust individuals on richer river shores or some inland lakeshores. Very small plants with extremely narrow leaves from coastal regions of Newfoundland have been named C. maritima var. setina, and unusually large plants from the shores of Kluane Lake, Yukon Territory, have been named C. maritima subsp. yukonensis. These are both regarded as environmentally derived, representing two extremes of the variation.

A few specimens from Greenland, Newfoundland, and Quebec appear to be hybrids between Carex maritima and Carex gynocrates (= C. ×langeana Fernald). Carex dutillyi O’Neill & Duman, described from Churchill, Manitoba, is probably also a hybrid of the same parentage.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Carex maritima"
biconvex +
smaller +
0.11 cm1.1 mm <br />0.0011 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
A. A. Reznicek +
Gunnerus +
shortened +
white-hyaline +, hyaline +  and narrow +
brown;dark-brown +
rounded +
Foetidae +
, +  and scabrous-margined +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
v--shaped +
0mm;20mm +
2-ranked +  and arranged +
ascending +  and appressed +
scale-like +
parallel +  and divergent +
terete +, rolled +  and plicate +
Carex maritime +
smooth-angled +  and trigonous +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (25 cm250 mm <br />0.25 m <br />) +
0.5mm;2mm +
Greenland +, Alta. +, Man. +, Nfld. and Labr. +, N.W.T. +, Nunavut +, Ont. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Yukon +, Alaska +, South America +  and Eurasia +
0–900 m +
veinless sessile +  and stipitate +
planoconvex;ovate;narrowly ovate +
open +, pistillate +  and staminate +
hypogynous +  and subtending +
biconvex +  and trigonous +
Beaches, dunes, fresh alluvium, rocky or mineral-rich soils of lake, river, and ocean shores, seepy slopes, fens, rock barrens, mostly near the coasts +
ovoid +  and hemispheric +
1.6 cm16 mm <br />0.016 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
globose +  and ovoid-globose +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1.6 cm16 mm <br />0.016 m <br />) +
sessile +  and condensed +
multi-ranked +, 2-ranked +, 3-ranked +  and alternate +
basal +  and cauline +
0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br /> (0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br />) +
whitish hyaline +
with (1-)3-6(-30) bristles and/or scales +
veinless +, essentially veinless +  and finely 3-12-veined abaxially +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.32 cm3.2 mm <br />0.0032 m <br />) +
0.23 cm2.3 mm <br />0.0023 m <br /> (0.27 cm2.7 mm <br />0.0027 m <br />) +
darker brown +  and pale yellowish-brown +
0.32 cm3.2 mm <br />0.0032 m <br /> (0.51 cm5.1 mm <br />0.0051 m <br />) +
erect +  and spreading +
dull +  and satiny +
leathery +  and papery +
0.16 cm1.6 mm <br />0.0016 m <br /> (0.23 cm2.3 mm <br />0.0023 m <br />) +
Fruiting Jun–Aug. +
2-3(-4)-carpellate +
3 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
awned +  and acute +
Fl. Norveg. +
adventitious +
pale-brown +  and dark-brown +
basal +  and proximal +
broadly ovate;nearly orbicular +
cylindric +
Illustrated +
indistinguishable +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
septate +, hollow +  and solid +
compressed +, terete +  and trigonous +
papillate +
0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br /> (?) +  and 0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br /> (?) +
deciduous +
2-3(-4)-fid +
Carex incurva +, Carex maritima var. setina +  and Carex maritima subsp. yukonensis +
Carex maritima +
Carex sect. Foetidae +
species +
plant +  and colonial +