Carex pedunculata

Muhlenberg ex Willdenow

Sp. Pl. 4(1): 222. 1805.

Common names: pedunculate sedge long-stalked sedge carex pédonculé
Illustrated
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 23. Treatment on page 547. Mentioned on page 545, 546.

Plants cespitose, stout-rhizomatous. Culms 8.8–28 cm. Leaves: basal sheaths dark reddish to purplish brown; blades mostly basal, dark green, equaling or mostly exceeding culms, 1.4–4 mm wide, thick, margins smooth or scabrous. Inflorescences: peduncles of basal pistillate spikes filiform, arching, to 13 cm; peduncles of terminal staminate spikes 2–6 cm; proximal bracts short-sheathing; pistillate spikes 2–5, mostly emerging from basal nodes, proximal spikes arching, distal ones ascending, short-pedunclulate, widely separated, often with 1–2 staminate flowers at apex, obovoid to ellipsoid; terminal staminate spikes usually with 2–5 pistillate flowers at base, 7.5–9.8 × 1.8–2.3 mm. Scales: pistillate scales pale-brown to reddish-brown, ovate to obovate, apex retuse or truncate to obtuse, cuspidate; staminate scales dark reddish-brown, ovate, apex cuspidate. Anthers 2–3.6 mm. Perigynia obovoid to oblanceoloid, 3.7–6 × 1.4–1.7 mm, base tapering, pubescent with short straight hairs; beak bent, 0.2–0.4 mm. Stigmas 3, thin, flexuous, strongly papillose. Achenes ellipsoid, 2.5 × 1.5–1.6 mm. 2n = 26.


Phenology: Fruiting spring–summer (mid Apr–early Jul).
Habitat: Moist to dry mixed forests and woodland openings, on basic and acidic substrates
Elevation: 0–800 m

Distribution

V23 1035-distribution-map.jpg

St. Pierre and Miquelon, Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.S., Ont., Que., Sask., Ala., Conn., Del., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Ky., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Pa., R.I., S.Dak., Tenn., Vt., Va., W.Va., Wis., e Asia

Discussion

Carex pedunculata is one of the early-flowering woodland sedges. Its achenes are subtended by elaiosomes, which facilitate dispersal by serving as attractants and food sources for ants (S. Handel 1976). This species has been characterized as a “fugitive species,” colonizing openings in woodlands, and decreasing in abundance as other woodland species begin to compete with it.

Carex pedunculata exhibits the classical eastern North Americaneastern Asian disjunct distribution pattern (P. W. Ball 1990). The Korean counterpart is known as var. erythrobasis (H. Léveillé & Vaniot) T. Koyama.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Carex pedunculata"
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (?) +
ellipsoid +
1.5mm;1.6mm +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.36 cm3.6 mm <br />0.0036 m <br />) +
glabrescent +  and pubescent +
William J. Crins +
Muhlenberg ex Willdenow +
shortened +
dark reddish;purplish brown +
tapering +
straight +
0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br /> (0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br />) +
v--shaped +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (?) +  and 0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (?) +
mostly exceeding culms +  and equaling +
thick;1.4mm;4mm +
glumaceous +  and foliaceous +
2-ranked +  and arranged +
ascending +  and appressed +
scale-like +  and leaflike +
parallel +  and divergent +
terete +, rolled +  and plicate +
pedunculate sedge +, long-stalked sedge +  and carex pédonculé +
shorter or longer +
round +  and trigonous +
8.8 cm88 mm <br />0.088 m <br /> (28 cm280 mm <br />0.28 m <br />) +
short-pedunclulate +
St. Pierre and Miquelon +, Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. +, N.S. +, Ont. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Ala. +, Conn. +, Del. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Ky. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.Dak. +, Tenn. +, Vt. +, Va. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +  and e Asia +
0–800 m +
pistillate +  and staminate +
hypogynous +  and subtending +
2 +  and 5 +
biconvex +  and trigonous +
Moist to dry mixed forests and woodland openings, on basic and acidic substrates +
straight +
prophyllate +, pedunculate +  and pistillate +
multi-ranked +, 2-ranked +, 3-ranked +  and alternate +
basal +  and cauline +
emarginate +  and entire +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
with (1-)3-6(-30) bristles and/or scales +
stipitate +, veined +  and veinless +
0.37 cm3.7 mm <br />0.0037 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
ascending +  and erect +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
0.14 cm1.4 mm <br />0.0014 m <br /> (0.17 cm1.7 mm <br />0.0017 m <br />) +
Fruiting spring–summer (mid Apr–early Jul). +
2-3(-4)-carpellate +
3 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
adventitious +
staminate +  and pistillate +
dark reddish-brown +, pale-brown +  and reddish-brown +
basal +  and proximal +
ovate;ovate;obovate +
cylindric +
Illustrated +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
septate +, hollow +  and solid +
compressed +, terete +  and trigonous +
papillose +
deciduous +
2-3(-4)-fid +
Carex sect. Digitatae +
Carex pedunculata +
Carex sect. Clandestinae +
species +
0.18 cm1.8 mm <br />0.0018 m <br /> (0.23 cm2.3 mm <br />0.0023 m <br />) +
plant +  and cespitose +