Carex sect. Squarrosae

J. Carey

Carices North. U.S., 564. 1847.

Treatment appears in FNA Volume 23.

Plants cespitose or colonial, short to long rhizomatous. Culms brown or redbrown at base. Leaves: basal sheaths not fibrous; sheath fronts membranous; blades septate-nodulose, usually V-shaped in cross-section when young, usually glabrous. Inflorescences single spike or racemose, with 2–9 spikes; proximal bracts leaflike or threadlike, sheathless or sheath longer than diameter of stem, at least 3 times as long as inflorescence; lateral spikes pistillate or infrequently gynecandrous, larger spikes usually with more than 50 perigynia, pedunculate, prophyllate; terminal spike staminate or gyncecandrous. Proximal pistillate scales sometimes with narrow, indistinct body, apex obtuse to awned. Perigynia ascending to spreading, many-veined, sessile or shortly stipitate, inflated, obconic, round in cross-section, not more than 10 mm, base tapering or rounded-tapering, apex truncate, abruptly beaked, glabrous; beak 1.2–3.8, bidentate, teeth 0.3 mm or longer. Stigmas 3. Achenes trigonous, 1.2–3 mm, smaller than bodies of perigynia; style persistent or deciduous.

Distribution

Temperate regions of e and mid w North America and temperate South America

Discussion

Species 4 (4 in the flora).

Selected References

None.

Key

1 Terminal spike largely staminate; pistillate scales with long awns, exceeding perigynia bodies; achenes 1.2–2.1 mm. > 2
1 Terminal spike gynecandrous; pistillate scales with short awns or awnless, completely hidden by perigynia; achenes 2–3 mm. > 3
2 Pistillate scales with narrow, indistinct body, 0.1–0.4 mm wide; staminate scales linear, 0.3–0.8 mm wide, loosely, irregularly imbricated with tips spreading; plants cespitose, not colonial, short-rhizomatous. Carex frankii
2 Pistillate scales with wider, translucent body, 0.4–0.9(–1.1) mm wide; staminate scales lanceolate, narrowly ovate, or oblong-obovate, 0.9–1.6 mm wide, ± tightly imbricate in spike; plants not cespitose, colonial, long-rhizomatous. Carex aureolensis
3 Style persistent, sinuous; achenes 1.9–2.5 times as long as wide; spikes 1–2(–3) per stem; pistillate portion of spike ovate to oblong; perigynia widely radiating, the proximal reflexed; beak usually smooth. Carex squarrosa
3 Style deciduous, straight; achenes 1.2–1.9 times as long as wide; spikes (1–)2–4(–6) per stem; pistillate portion of spike oblong to elliptic; perigynia, including the proximal, appressed-ascending; beak often sparingly scabrous. Carex typhina

"not undefined" is not a number.

... more about "Carex sect. Squarrosae"
trigonous +
smaller +
beaked +  and truncate +
Bruce A. Ford +  and A. A. Reznicek +
J. Carey +
shortened +
rounded-tapering +  and tapering +
1.2 +  and 3.8 +
bidentate +
v--shaped +  and septate-nodulose +
0mm;20mm +
indistinct +
glumaceous +  and foliaceous +
2-ranked +  and arranged +
ascending +  and appressed +
scale-like +  and leaflike +
parallel +  and divergent +
terete +, rolled +  and plicate +
redbrown +  and brown +
round +  and trigonous +
Temperate regions of e and mid w North America and temperate South America +
open +, pistillate +  and staminate +
hypogynous +  and subtending +
biconvex +  and trigonous +
prophyllate +  and pedunculate +
multi-ranked +, 2-ranked +, 3-ranked +  and alternate +
basal +  and cauline +
with (1-)3-6(-30) bristles and/or scales +
stipitate +, sessile +  and many-veined +
ascending +  and spreading +
2-3(-4)-carpellate +
3 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
thread-like;leaflike +
Carices North. U.S., +
adventitious +
basal +  and proximal +
2-keeled +
cylindric +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
septate +, hollow +  and solid +
compressed +, terete +  and trigonous +
papillate +
deciduous +  and persistent +
2-3(-4)-fid +
Carex sect. Squarrosae +
section +
gyncecandrous +  and staminate +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (?) +
plant +, colonial +  and cespitose +