Carex tonsa

(Fernald) E. P. Bicknell

Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 35: 492. 1908.

IllustratedEndemic
Basionym: Carex umbellata var. tonsa Fernald Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 37: 507. 1902
Synonyms: Carex rugosperma var. tonsa (Fernald) E. G. Voss
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 23. Mentioned on page 538.

Plants densely to loosely cespitose; rhizomes ascending to erect, brown to reddish-brown, 0–10 mm, stout. Culms 4–16 cm, scabrous distally; bases (remnants of old leaves) fibrous. Leaf-blades pale to bright green, equaling or exceeding stems, 0.5–4.3 mm wide, herbaceous or coriaceous, glabrous abaxially, strongly scabrous to papillose adaxially. Inflorescences with both staminate and pistillate scales; peduncles of basal pistillate spikes erect, short-to-elongate, stout to slender; peduncles of staminate spikes 0.8–15 mm; proximal nonbasal bracts scalelike, shorter than inflorescences. Spikes: proximal pistillate spikes 2–3 (basal spikes 1–2); cauline spikes usually overlapping with staminate spikes, with 3–10 (–15) perigynia; staminate spikes 4.5–11.3 × 1.1–3 mm. Scales: pistillate scales pale-brown to reddish-brown, with narrow white margins, ovate, 2.9–4.1 × 1.5–1.9 mm, equaling or exceeding perigynia, apex acute to long-acuminate; staminate scales ovate, 4.2–5.4 × 1.2–2.1 mm, apex obtuse or acute to acuminate. Anthers 1.6–2.9 mm. Perigynia green to pale-brown, veinless, ellipsoid, obtusely trigonous in cross-section, 3.1–4.7 × 1.1–1.6 mm; beak straight, pale green, occasionally with reddish-brown tinge near apex, strongly 2-edged, 0.9–2 mm, smooth or ciliate-serrulate, apical teeth 0.2–0.5 mm. Stigmas 3. Achenes brown, ellipsoid to obovoid, obtusely trigonous in cross-section, 1.6–2 × 1.2–1.6 mm.

Distribution

V23 1011-distribution-map.jpg

Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Conn., D.C., Ga., Ill., Ind., Maine, Mass., Md., Mich., Minn., N.C., N.H., N.J., N.Y., Ohio, Pa., S.C., Vt., W.Va., Wis.

Discussion

Varieties 2 (2 in the flora).

Selected References

None.

Key

1 Perigynia with few hairs near base of beak, otherwise glabrous; leaves pale green, often relatively short, coriaceous, usually smooth adaxially. Carex tonsa var. tonsa
1 Perigynia pubescent on beak and body; leaves bright green, much longer than culms, herbaceous, scabrous to papillose adaxially. Carex tonsa var. rugosperma
... more about "Carex tonsa"
0.16 cm1.6 mm <br />0.0016 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
trigonous;ellipsoid;obovoid +
1.2mm;1.6mm +
0.16 cm1.6 mm <br />0.0016 m <br /> (0.29 cm2.9 mm <br />0.0029 m <br />) +
beaked +, awned +  and cuspidate +
reddish-brown tinge +
glabrous +  and pubescent +
0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br /> (0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br />) +
William J. Crins +  and Jeff H. Rettig +
(Fernald) E. P. Bicknell +
shortened +
rounded +  and tapering +
Carex umbellata var. tonsa +
ciliate-serrulate +, smooth +  and 2-edged +
straight +
bidentate +  and bent +
0.09 cm0.9 mm <br />9.0e-4 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
v--shaped +
2mm;4.5mm +
glumaceous +  and foliaceous +
2-ranked +  and arranged +
ascending +  and appressed +
scale-like +  and leaflike +
parallel +  and divergent +
terete +, rolled +  and plicate +
brown +  and red +
round +  and trigonous +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (16 cm160 mm <br />0.16 m <br />) +
Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, N.B. +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Conn. +, D.C. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Maine +, Mass. +, Md. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, N.C. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, Ohio +, Pa. +, S.C. +, Vt. +, W.Va. +  and Wis. +
open +, pistillate +  and staminate +
hypogynous +  and subtending +
biconvex +  and trigonous +
prophyllate +, pedunculate +, staminate +, , +  and pistillate +
pale +  and bright green +
strongly scabrous;papillose +
coriaceous +  and herbaceous +
exceeding stems +  and equaling +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.43 cm4.3 mm <br />0.0043 m <br />) +
multi-ranked +, 2-ranked +, 3-ranked +  and alternate +
basal +  and cauline +
with (1-)3-6(-30) bristles and/or scales +
green +  and pale-brown +
0.31 cm3.1 mm <br />0.0031 m <br /> (0.47 cm4.7 mm <br />0.0047 m <br />) +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
0.11 cm1.1 mm <br />0.0011 m <br /> (0.16 cm1.6 mm <br />0.0016 m <br />) +
2-3(-4)-carpellate +
3 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
Bull. Torrey Bot. Club +
brown +  and reddish-brown +
ascending +  and erect +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
adventitious +
staminate +  and pistillate +
pale-brown +  and reddish-brown +
0.42 cm4.2 mm <br />0.0042 m <br /> (0.54 cm5.4 mm <br />0.0054 m <br />) +
basal +  and proximal +
ovate;ovate +
exceeding perigynia +  and equaling +
1.2mm;2.1mm +
cylindric +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
staminate +  and pistillate +
0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br /> (1.13 cm11.3 mm <br />0.0113 m <br />) +
stout +  and slender +
0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
0.11 cm1.1 mm <br />0.0011 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
septate +, hollow +  and solid +
compressed +, terete +  and trigonous +
papillate +
deciduous +
2-3(-4)-fid +
Carex rugosperma var. tonsa +
Carex tonsa +
Carex sect. Acrocystis +
species +
0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br /> (0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br />) +
stoloniferous +  and rhizomatous +
plant +  and cespitose +