Cercocarpus betuloides var. blancheae

(C. K. Schneider) Little

Phytologia 4: 308. 1953.

Common names: Coastal mountain mahogany
Basionym: Cercocarpus betulifolius var. blancheae C. K. Schneider Mitt. Deutsch. Dendrol. Ges. 14: 127. 1905 (as belulaefolius)
Synonyms: C. alnifolius Rydberg C. betuloides subsp. blancheae (C. K. Schneider) Thorne C. betuloides var. multiflorus Jepson C. montanus var. blancheae (C. K. Schneider) F. L. Martin
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 9. Treatment on page 334. Mentioned on page 333, 335.

Shrubs or trees, 10–50 (–80) dm. Young stems with tightly coiled hairs. Leaves: stipules (3–) 4–6 (–10) mm; blade oblong-obovate or elliptic, obovate, ovate, or suborbiculate, (8–) 12–50 (–78) × (4–) 8–35 (–64) mm, subcoriaceous to coriaceous, margins serrate or dentate or crenate in distal 1/5–3/4, abaxial veins with coiled, 1/2 coiled, or coiled-wavy hairs to 1 mm (or some appressed-sericeous hairs on off-coastal island plants), areoles canescent or glabrous, adaxial surface sparsely similarly hairy, glabrescent. Flowers (1–) 3–8 (–18) per short-shoot; hypanthial tubes with coiled hairs (or some sericeous hairs on island plants). Achenes 8–11 (–13) × 1.8–2.5 (–2.9) mm; fruiting pedicels (1.5–) 3–11 (–14) mm; hypanthial tubes (6–) 7–13 (–16) mm; pedicel/tube ratio (20–) 35–90 (–120) %; fruit awns 5.3–7.5 (–9.2) cm.


Phenology: Flowering late Feb–Apr.
Habitat: Coastal chaparral
Elevation: (10–)100–800 m

Distribution

V9 548-distribution-map.jpg

Calif., Mexico (Baja California)

Discussion

Variety blancheae grows primarily in chaparral in coastal southern California from San Luis Obispo to San Diego counties (rare in northern Baja California, Mexico) and on adjacent Santa Catalina, Santa Cruz (where frequent), and Santa Rosa (rare) islands. This treatment combines the coastal mainland and insular plants. Both tend to have multiple flowers on each short shoot and coiled hairs on young stems, leaves, hypanthia, and pedicels. This coiled hair type is consistent in mainland populations; some insular plants are sericeous throughout. Insular plants typically have larger leaves than mainland plants, except in very dry areas, and conversely, mainland coastal plants previously designated as var. betuloides have smaller leaves except in protected and shaded habitats. Recognition of these two as distinct, at any rank, is poorly supported, and the authors consider them phases of a single taxon. Plants of the more arid slopes in transmontane southern and central California are more sericeous throughout and have fewer flowers per short shoot (see var. betuloides). Intermediates occur in zones of contact.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
villous +, pilose +  and sericeous +
1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br /> (1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br />) +
1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br /> (1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br />) +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.29 cm2.9 mm <br />0.0029 m <br />) +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br />) +
3mm +  and 11mm +
1.8mm +  and 2.5mm +
glabrescent +  and hairy +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
glabrous +  and canescent +
James Henrickson +  and Brian D. Vanden Heuvel +
(C. K. Schneider) Little +
maroon-brown +, silvery +  and dark gray or brownish black +
compound +  and simple +
opposite +  and alternate +
cordate +, cuneate +  and rounded +
Cercocarpus betulifolius var. blancheae +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (7.8 cm78 mm <br />0.078 m <br />) +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (7.8 cm78 mm <br />0.078 m <br />) +
3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br /> (6.4 cm64 mm <br />0.064 m <br />) +
1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
suborbiculate +, ovate +, obovate +, elliptic +  and oblong-obovate +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
? (?) +  and ? (?) +
8mm +  and 35mm +
free +  and distinct +
Coastal mountain mahogany +
hemispheric-campanulate +
Calif. +  and Mexico (Baja California) +
not +  and aggregated +
(10–)100–800 m +
eglandular +  and veined +
hairy +  and glabrous +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
3 +  and 8 +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
not +  and aggregated +
7.5 cm75 mm <br />0.075 m <br /> (9.2 cm92 mm <br />0.092 m <br />) +
5.3 cm53 mm <br />0.053 m <br /> (7.5 cm75 mm <br />0.075 m <br />) +
1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br /> (1.35 cm13.5 mm <br />0.0135 m <br />) +
cylindro-fusiform +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br />) +
chartaceous-coriaceous +
Coastal chaparral +
0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br /> (0.13 cm1.3 mm <br />0.0013 m <br />) +
spreading +  and erect-ascending +
coiled-wavy +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br /> (1.6 cm16 mm <br />0.016 m <br />) +
with coiled or spreading hairs +, villous +, woolly +  and sericeous +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br />) +
villous +, hirsute-pilose +  and sericeous +
cinnamon brown +, tinged reddish +  and greenish yellow +
1-3(-18)-flowered +
crassinucellate +
drought-deciduous +  and persistent +
reduced +
flexuous +  and straight +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (5.5 cm55 mm <br />0.055 m <br />) +
glabrescent +  and hairy +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
dentate or crenate +  and serrate +
crenate +, flat +  and revolute +
inferior +  and superior +
clustered +, biseriate +  and superposed +
0 (?) +  and 4 (?) +
free +  and distinct +
5 +  and 4 +
0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br /> (1.6 cm16 mm <br />0.016 m <br />) +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
Flowering late Feb–Apr. +
adnate +, free +, connate +  and distinct +
0.27 cm2.7 mm <br />0.0027 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
not arillate +
deciduous +
free +  and distinct +
erect +  and reflexed +
acute-acuminate +  and deltate +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
not +  and branched +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (5.5 cm55 mm <br />0.055 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
Illustrated +
free +  and distinct +
1 +  and 20 +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
adnate +  and free +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
persistent +
distinct +
basal +, lateral +, subterminal +  and terminal +
elongate +
C. alnifolius +, C. betuloides subsp. blancheae +, C. betuloides var. multiflorus +  and C. montanus var. blancheae +
Cercocarpus betuloides var. blancheae +
Cercocarpus betuloides +
variety +
inconspicuous +
hemispheric +
tree +  and shrub +