Chorizanthe diffusa

Bentham in A. P. de Candolle and A. L. P. P. de Candolle

in A. P. de Candolle and A. L. P. P. de Candolle, Prodr. 14: 26. 1856.

Common names: Diffuse spineflower
Endemic
Synonyms: Chorizanthe andersonii Parry Chorizanthe diffusa var. nivea (Curran) Hoover Chorizanthe nivea Bentham Chorizanthe pungens var. diffusa (Bentham) Parry Chorizanthe pungens var. nivea Curran
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 5. Treatment on page 452. Mentioned on page 447, 453, 454.

Plants spreading, decumbent, prostrate, or rarely slightly erect, 0.3–1 (–1.5) × 0.5–2 (–10) dm, villous. Leaves basal; petiole 0.2–1.8 (–2) cm; blade oblanceolate, 0.3–2 × 0.1–0.4 cm, villous. Inflorescences rather dense with secondary branches suppressed, white to greenish; bracts 2, similar to leaf-blades at proximal nodes only reduced, short-petiolate, becoming linear and aciculate at distal nodes, acerose, 0.3–2 cm × 1–4 mm, awns absent. Involucres 1, mostly greenish, cylindric, not ventricose, 2–2.5 mm, with thin to broad and then conspicuous white or pinkish to purple, scarious margins extending nearly full length of awn, not corrugate, villous-hirsute; teeth spreading to divergent, equal, 0.5–1 mm, awns uncinate with longer ones 1–2 mm, anterior one mostly 2 mm, alternating with shorter (0.5–1 mm) ones. Flowers exserted; perianth bicolored with floral-tube lemon-yellow and tepals white, campanulate, 2.5–3 mm, glabrous; tepals connate ca. 1/3 their length, monomorphic, oblong, acute to obtuse and entire apically; stamens 3–9, slightly exserted; filaments distinct, 1.5–2 mm, glabrous; anthers yellow, oval, 0.3–0.4 mm. Achenes dark-brown, globose-lenticular, 2–2.5 mm. 2n = 38, 40, 42.


Phenology: Flowering Apr–Jul.
Habitat: Sandy to gravelly flats and slopes, coastal scrub communities, pine-oak woodlands
Elevation: 30-800 m

Discussion

The involucral margins of Chorizanthe diffusa vary greatly. In some individuals, the white margins are barely visible. Plants with the margins of the involucre are predominantly white have been designated var. nivea. A full gradation between the extremes may be observed in most populations, although in coastal sands var. nivea is often the dominant expression. Diffuse spineflower occurs near the coast and in the Coast Ranges of central California.

Chorizanthe diffusa has been shown to inhibit carcinogen-induced preneoplastic lesions in a mouse mammary-organ culture model. This inhibitory activity is known to correlate with cancer chemopreventive effects in full-term models of tumorigenesis (see H. S. Chung et al. 1999).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"thin" is not a number."/2" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property."dm" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property."dm" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Chorizanthe diffusa"
42 +, 40 +  and 38 +
globose-lenticular +
0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br /> (0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br />) +
James L. Reveal +
Bentham in A. P. de Candolle and A. L. P. P. de Candolle +
alternating +
anterior +
uncinate +
unequal +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (?) +
alternate +  and rosulate +
stipelike +
awn-tipped +  and simple +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
oblanceolate +
0.1cm;0.4cm +
short-petiolate +
deciduous +
distinct +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
glandular +, woolly-floccose +, tomentose +, strigose +, villous +, hirsute +  and pubescent +
acerose +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
disarticulating +, dichotomous +, branched +  and open +
erect +  and spreading +
just below the soil surface or and above the soil surface +  and spreading +
Diffuse spineflower +
30-800 m +
curved +  and straight +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
white +  and pink or rose maroon or purple or yellow +
decumbent to erect +  and prostrate +
unwinged +  and winged +
black +, red +, brown +  and yellowish +
exserted +  and included +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
spheroidal +, 4-gonous +, lenticular +, biconvex +, discoid +, 3-gonous +  and 2-gonous +
Sandy to gravelly flats and slopes, coastal scrub communities, pine-oak woodlands +
uniparous +, capitate +  and cymose +
cymelike +, paniclelike +, racemelike +  and spikelike +
connate +  and free +
pinkish +  and purple +
not ventricose +  and cylindric +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
nonmembranous +
in whorls +, opposite +, alternate +  and rosulate +
deciduous +  and persistent +
bractlike +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
villous-hirsute +
lobed +, undulate +, crisped +, crenulate +  and entire +
not swollen +
orthotropous +
accrescent +
curved +  and straight +
erect to deflexed +
cylindric +  and campanulate +
accrescent +
fleshy +, indurate +  and membranous +
with extrafloral nectaries +  and not articulate +
1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br />) +
Flowering Apr–Jul. +
homostylous +  and 3-carpellate +
in A. P. de Candolle and A. L. P. P. de Candolle, Prodr. +
, +  and solid +
slender;stout +
3 (?) +  and 9 (?) +
not disarticulating +
decumbent to erect +  and prostrate +
prostrate +  and erect +
penicillate +, fimbriate +  and capitate +
deciduous +  and persistent +
? (?) +  and ? (?) +
coriaceous +  and membranous +
consisting of a series +  and tubular +
distinct +
erect;spreading +
Chorizanthe andersonii +, Chorizanthe diffusa var. nivea +, Chorizanthe nivea +, Chorizanthe pungens var. diffusa +  and Chorizanthe pungens var. nivea +
chambered +, , +  and solid +
Slender (?) +  and Stout (?) +
Chorizanthe diffusa +
Chorizanthe sect. Ptelosepala +
species +
acute +  and obtuse +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
coriaceous +
shallow +
unequal +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
persistent +
membranous +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
erect;prostrate;erect;prostrate;spreading +
3 +, 2 +  and 1 +