Cimicifuga americana

Michaux

Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1: 316. 1803.

Common names: American bugbane
EndemicIllustrated
Synonyms: Cimicifuga cordifolia Pursh Cimicifuga racemosa var. cordifolia (Pursh) A. Gray
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 3.

Stems 60-250 cm, usually glabrous, rarely sparsely pubescent. Leaves: petiole rounded abaxially, 8-16 cm, broadly and shallowly grooved adaxially, glabrous, rarely with a few lax hairs in groove. Leaf-blade (2-) 3-ternately compound; leaflets 32-100; terminal leaflet of central segment ovate to oblong, incisely 3-lobed, 6-15 × 4-14 cm, with 3 veins arising basally, base cuneate to somewhat cordate, margins dentate to serrate, apex acute to acuminate, surfaces glabrous or glabrate; other leaflets 3-15 × 3-10 cm. Inflorescences ± lax panicles of 3-10 racemelike branches, 10-50 cm, densely short-pubescent and granular; bract 1, subtending pedicel, broadly triangular, acute, 1-3 mm; pedicel to 20 mm, granular, bracteoles present along most of pedicel, narrowly triangular, acute. Flowers: sepals 5, 3 outer white tinged red, 2 inner yellowish green; petals usually 2, rarely more, sessile, body yellowish with white lobes, ovate, 3-6 mm; nectary basal; stamens 40-70; filaments 6-10 mm; pistils 3-8, short-stipitate, body glabrous, stipe granular; style subulate, often curved; stigma minute, 0.2 mm wide. Follicles 2-4, stipitate, obovate, laterally compressed, 8-17 mm, membranous walled, glabrous. Seeds pale-brown, lenticular, ca. 3.5 mm, covered with whitish, broad, lacerate scales but not apprearing cylindric.


Phenology: Flowering summer–fall (Aug–Oct).
Habitat: Moist, rich, rocky and boulder-strewn, wooded slopes and coves
Elevation: 300-2000 m

Distribution

V3 1126-distribution-map.gif

Ga., Ill., Ky., Md., N.C., Pa., S.C., Tenn., Va., W.Va.

Discussion

Much confusion has developed over the name Cimicifuga cordifolia Pursh. Although F. Pursh (1814, vol. 2, pp. 372-373) considered it synonymous with C. americana, several other authors have variously misapplied the name C. cordifolia to C. racemosa and C. rubifolia.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Cimicifuga americana"
Acute (?) +  and Acuminate (?) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
Gwynn W. Ramsey +
Michaux +
cordate +  and cuneate to somewhat +
straight +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
acute;triangular +
acute +  and triangular +
racemelike +
globose;cylindric +
American bugbane +
Ga. +, Ill. +, Ky. +, Md. +, N.C. +, Pa. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Va. +  and W.Va. +
300-2000 m +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
sessile +  and pedicellate +
showy +  and inconspicuous +
walled +  and stipitate +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br />) +
stipitate +, sessile +  and aggregate +
ovoid +  and obovoid +
Moist, rich, rocky and boulder-strewn, wooded slopes and coves +
axillary +  and terminal +
yellowish green +
petiolate +  and compound +
whorled +, opposite +  and alternate +
cauline +  and basal +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
2-5-lobed +, ovatelanceolate +  and broadly obovate or orbiculate +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
incised +  and toothed +
palmate +  and pinnate +
incised;toothed;incised;toothed;entire +
red +  and white tinged +
many-flowered +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (50 cm500 mm <br />0.5 m <br />) +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
distinct +
conspicuous +
reduced +
8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br /> (16 cm160 mm <br />0.16 m <br />) +
Flowering summer–fall (Aug–Oct). +
short-stipitate +
3 +  and 8 +
Fl. Bor.-Amer. +
lacerate +
not arillate +  and stalked +
verrucose +
not cylindric +  and lenticular +
6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
3-lobed +, ovate +  and oblong +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (14 cm140 mm <br />0.14 m <br />) +
tinged with red;pinkish;cream;greenish yellow +
not persistent +
distinct +
3 +  and 5 +
more or less concave ovate +  and obovate +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
Endemic +  and Illustrated +
60 cm600 mm <br />0.6 m <br /> (250 cm2,500 mm <br />2.5 m <br />) +
persistent +
subulate +
glabrate;glabrous +
Cimicifuga cordifolia +  and Cimicifuga racemosa var. cordifolia +
Cimicifuga americana +
Cimicifuga +
species +
herbaceous +  and woody +