Cladium californicum

(S. Watson) O’Neill in I. Tidestrom and T. Kittell

in I. Tidestrom and T. Kittell, Fl. Ariz. New Mex., 773. 1941.

Illustrated
Basionym: Cladium mariscus var. californicum S. Watson Bot. California 2: 224. 1880
Synonyms: Mariscus californicus (S. Watson) Fernald
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 23. Treatment on page 242.

Rhizomes to 20 cm × 10 mm. Culms 1–2 m × 5–10 mm. Leaves: blades flat to broadly V-shaped, 1–2 m × 7–10 mm, margins and midvein abaxially harshly scabrous with teeth visible to unaided eye. Inflorescences terminal (or lateral and terminal), pedunculate, peduncle mostly covered by subtending leaf-sheath, 30–50 cm; 1st, 2d, 3d, and rarely 4th order branches, branches slightly flexuous. Spikelets in groups of (3–) 4–6, ellipsoid to lanceolate, 3 mm; floral scales 5–6, the proximal chestnut-brown, ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 2.5–3 × 2 mm, midvein conspicuous, lateral-veins weak; stamens 2; anthers 2 mm, connective apices 0.1 mm; styles 1–1.5 mm; stigmas 1–1.5 mm. Achenes purplish brown, ovoid, 1.5–2 × 1 mm, base vaguely 3-lobed, truncate, not flared or discoid, apex acute, persistent style base forming beak 0.2 mm, smooth or irregularly rugulose, glossy. 2n = 36.


Phenology: Fruiting and flowering late spring–summer.
Habitat: Alkaline marshes, swamps, springs
Elevation: 0–2000 m

Distribution

V23 432-distribution-map.jpg

Ariz., Calif., Nev., Tex., Utah, Mexico (Coahuila)

Discussion

Cladium californicum is chiefly differentiated from C. jamaicense by distribution. A detailed investigation of the morphologic differences between the two species would be instructive.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Cladium californicum"
purplish brown +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (?) +
Gordon C. Tucker +
(S. Watson) O’Neill in I. Tidestrom and T. Kittell +
shortened +
persistent +
discoid +, not flared +, truncate +  and 3-lobed +
Cladium mariscus var. californicum +
100 cm1,000 mm <br />1 m <br /> (200 cm2,000 mm <br />2 m <br />) +
flat +  and broadly v-shaped +
7mm;10mm +
glumaceous +  and foliaceous +
2-ranked +  and arranged +
ascending +  and appressed +
parallel +  and divergent +
terete +, rolled +  and plicate +
100 cm1,000 mm <br />1 m <br /> (200 cm2,000 mm <br />2 m <br />) +
rounded-trigonous +  and terete +
5mm;10mm +
Ariz. +, Calif. +, Nev. +, Tex. +, Utah +  and Mexico (Coahuila) +
0–2000 m +
hypogynous +  and subtending +
biconvex +  and trigonous +
Alkaline marshes, swamps, springs +
multi-ranked +, 2-ranked +, 3-ranked +  and alternate +
30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br /> (50 cm500 mm <br />0.5 m <br />) +
with (1-)3-6(-30) bristles and/or scales +
Fruiting and flowering late spring–summer. +
2-3(-4)-carpellate +
3 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (?) +
in I. Tidestrom and T. Kittell, Fl. Ariz. New Mex., +
0cm +  and 20cm +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (?) +
adventitious +
basal +  and proximal +
2-keeled +
cylindric +
Illustrated +
100 +  and 1000 +
septate +, hollow +  and solid +
compressed +, terete +  and trigonous +
papillate +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
rugulose +  and smooth +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (?) +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
Mariscus californicus +
Cladium californicum +
species +
stoloniferous +  and rhizomatous +
herb +, not +  and cespitose +