Crataegus iracunda

Beadle

Biltmore Bot. Stud. 1: 124. 1902.

Common names: Passionate hawthorn
Endemic
Synonyms: Crataegus drymophila Sargent C. iracunda var. silvicola E. J. Palmer
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 9. Treatment on page 563. Mentioned on page 562, 564, 569, 572, 573, 591.

Shrubs or trees, 30–80 dm. Stems: twigs: new growth greenish, glabrous, 1-year old deep reddish-brown, 2-years old grayer; thorns on twigs 2-years old blackish or dark gray, shiny, slender, 2.5–4 cm. Leaves: petiole length 40–50% blade, eglandular; blade ovate to ovate-deltate, 2–4 (–5) cm, 1.2–1.4 times as long as wide, 40–60% mature size at anthesis, base broadly rounded to subtruncate or subcordate, lobes 4 per side, sinuses moderately shallow, lobe apex ca. 90 at tip, often less, margins serrate, teeth regular, 0.5–1 mm, with minute, caducous gland-tipped, veins 3 or 4 (or 5) per side, apex acute, abaxial surface glabrous except along veins, adaxial finely appressed-pubescent young. Inflorescences 4–10-flowered; branches glabrous; bracteoles few, ± linear. Flowers 12–15 mm diam.; hypanthium glabrous; sepals 4–5 mm, margins ± entire or slightly glandular-serrate, abaxially glabrous; stamens 10, anthers pink to purple; styles 3–5. Pomes orange to red, or blotched green, suborbicular, 8–10 mm diam.; sepals spreading; pyrenes 3–5, dorsally grooved.


Phenology: Flowering Apr; fruiting Sep–Oct.
Habitat: Open woodlands, brush, fencerows, cutovers
Elevation: 20–300 m

Distribution

V9 954-distribution-map.jpg

Ala., Ga., La., Miss., N.C., S.C., Va.

Discussion

Crataegus iracunda ranges from Louisiana to South Carolina and Georgia, and to Virginia, but only at low altitudes. Nearly all records of C. iracunda north of the listed distribution are referable to C. macrosperma or to various species in ser. Populneae.

The distinguishing features of Crataegus iracunda are most evident when it is in flower. The species can be construed as a smaller, more southern, allopatric relative of C. macrosperma distinguished by smaller leaves (particularly at anthesis), more slender thorns, and harder, drier pomes. Its distribution is almost wholly to the south of or in Appalachia, at lower elevations than C. macrosperma. The nearest records of C. macrosperma to the Louisiana populations of C. iracunda are from the Arkansas Ozarks.

Crataegus iracunda has been confused with C. gattingeri (ser. Pruinosae) but is readily distinguished in flower by adaxial leaf pubescence, stamen number, and by lacking the usually attenuate terminal leaf lobes of the latter. However, in fruit, unless the filament bases can be counted, one is left with the less reliable feature of the terminal lobe shape. Confusion with the larger-leaved C. populnea (ser. Populneae) is perhaps possible, but the two species are essentially allopatric and their leaves differ markedly in size and texture.

Earlier attempts to segregate varieties based on leaf size are not taken up here but may have merit as the relatively numerous Louisiana (Crataegus drymophila) form has much smaller leaves than North Carolina specimens.

Variety brumalis (Ashe) Kruschke (Crataegus brumalis Ashe) with syntype material from near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, is a different entity. Compared to C. iracunda, it has larger and differently shaped (often more or less truncate-based) leaves, proportionately larger at anthesis, and adaxially subglabrous, conspicuously glandular petioles, and larger flowers. This taxon (as a variety of C. iracunda) is primarily responsible for the northwards extension of the range of the latter species. In fact, north of the Mason-Dixon line, most of the specimens attributed to C. brumalis seen by the author appear to be forms of C. macrosperma.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Crataegus iracunda"
appressed-scabrous-pubescent +
appressed-pubescent +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
pink +  and purple +
James B. Phipps +
Beadle +
orangebrown +
thin-exfoliating +  and corrugated +
compound +  and simple +
opposite +  and alternate +
broadly rounded +  and subtruncate or subcordate +
Tenuifoliae +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
ovate +  and ovate-deltate +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
adnate +  and distinct +
crowded +, scattered +  and alternate +
Passionate hawthorn +
Ala. +, Ga. +, La. +, Miss. +, N.C. +, S.C. +  and Va. +
not +  and aggregated +
20–300 m +
1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
not +  and aggregated +
not +  and aggregated +
yellow +  and red or purplish +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
reddish-brown +  and greenish +
old +  and new +
Open woodlands, brush, fencerows, cutovers +
constricted +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
crassinucellate +
deciduous +
eglandular +  and craspedodromous +
glandular-serrate +, entire +  and serrate +
subentire +
6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
inferior +  and superior +
biseriate +  and clustered +
collateral +  and basal +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
elliptic +  and circular +
0 (?) +  and 4 (?) +
free +  and distinct +
post-mature +
eglandular +  and sessile-glandular +
eglandular +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
Flowering Apr +  and fruiting Sep–Oct. +
adnate +, free +, connate +  and distinct +
dark gray-brown +  and russet +
exfoliating +  and corrugated +
pruinose +
orange +  and red or blotched green +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
suborbicular +
Biltmore Bot. Stud. +
not arillate +
persistent +
free +  and distinct +
triangular +
nonaccrescent +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
1-50-flowered +  and few-leaved +
free +  and distinct +
branched +  and simple +
persistent +
distinct +
exsert +  and lateral +
elongate +
glabrous +  and tomentose +
Crataegus drymophila +  and C. iracunda var. silvicola +
Crataegus iracunda +
Crataegus (sect. Coccineae) ser. Tenuifoliae +
species +
6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
dark gray +  and blackish +
straight +
slender +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
gland-tipped +  and regular +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
inconspicuous +
less erect +  and oblique +
1 +  and several +
straight +
determinate +
glabrescent +  and pilose +
4 +  and 3 +
tree +  and shrub +