Cyperus drummondii

Torrey & Hooker

Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York 3: 437, errata. 1836.

Illustrated
Synonyms: Cyperus robustus Kunth Cyperus virens subsp. drummondii (Torrey & Hooker) T. Koyama Cyperus virens var. drummondii (Torrey & Hooker) Kükenthal Cyperus virens var. robustus (Kunth) Kükenthal
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 23. Mentioned on page 154.

Herbs, perennial, cespitose; rhizomes 0.5–2 cm, often absent. Culms trigonous, 35–170 cm × 2–4.7 mm, scabrid on angles. Leaves 4–12, with readily visible cross ribs especially on abaxial surface, flat to V-shaped, 25–100 cm × 2.4–11 mm. Inflorescences: heads digitate, globose, 1–1.7 cm diam.; rays 3–5, 1–7 cm; 2d order rays absent; bracts 3–5, horizontal to ascending at 30°, with prominent cross ribs, V-shaped, (4–) 11–35 (–48) cm × 1–6.7 mm (longest 1/2 as long as culm); 2d order bracts absent. Spikelets 10–40, oblong to linear-lanceoloid, 5–1.8 × 1.5–2.2 mm; floral scales 18–42, pale grayish green, turning brownish, proximally greenish or brownish, 2-keeled, weakly to distinctly 1-ribbed, proximal 1/2 2-ribbed, ovate, 1.4–1.6 × 0.9–1.4 mm, acute (sometimes mucronulate), apically glabrous, occasionally scabridulous. Flowers: stamens 1–2; anthers 0.8–1.2 mm; styles 0.8–1 mm; stigmas 0.6–0.8 mm. Achenes brown, slightly stipitate, oblongellipsoid (2.4–3.9 times longer than wide), 1–1.2 × 0.3–0.5 mm, apical beak 0.1–0.5 mm, surfaces glabrous.


Phenology: Fruiting late spring–summer.
Habitat: Wet, relatively undisturbed habitats, especially flatwoods, ponds, seepage slopes, coastal prairies
Elevation: 0–200 m

Distribution

V23 237-distribution-map.jpg

Ala., Fla., Ga., La., Miss., S.C., Tex., West Indies, Central America, South America

Discussion

Cyperus drummondii has been treated as a synonym (G. C. Tucker 1994), or a variety (G. Kükenthal 1935–1936), or a subspecies of C. virens (M. F. Denton 1978b). Recent quantitative and field studies (J. R. Carter et al. 1999) provided compelling evidence that specific status is appropriate.

Compared to Cyperus virens, C. drummondii is a taller species of less disturbed habitats and has narrower spikelets, ovate scales, and fewer inflorescence bracts. Cyperus virens and C. drummondii are readily distinguished from other Cyperus species in the United States by their sharply angled, scabrid culms and conspicuously septate leaf blades.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Cyperus drummondii"
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br />) +
terete;planoconvex;terete;planoconvex;trigonous +
0.3mm;0.5mm +
0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br /> (0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br />) +
0.01 cm0.1 mm <br />1.0e-4 m <br /> (0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br />) +
Gordon C. Tucker* +, Brian G. Marcks* +  and J. Richard Carter * +
Torrey & Hooker +
shortened +
persistent +  and deciduous +
decurrent +
w--shaped +  and keeled +
glumaceous +  and foliaceous +
2-ranked +  and arranged +
35 cm350 mm <br />0.35 m <br /> (48 cm480 mm <br />0.48 m <br />) +
11 cm110 mm <br />0.11 m <br /> (35 cm350 mm <br />0.35 m <br />) +
horizontal +  and ascending +
v--shaped +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.67 cm6.7 mm <br />0.0067 m <br />) +
parallel +  and divergent +
terete +, rolled +  and plicate +
35 cm350 mm <br />0.35 m <br /> (170 cm1,700 mm <br />1.7 m <br />) +
scabridulous +
trigonous +
2mm;4.7mm +
Ala. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, La. +, Miss. +, S.C. +, Tex. +, West Indies +, Central America +  and South America +
0–200 m +
brownish +, greenish +, green +  and pale grayish +
0.14 cm1.4 mm <br />0.0014 m <br /> (0.16 cm1.6 mm <br />0.0016 m <br />) +
acute +, ovate +, 2-keeled +  and weakly distinctly 1-ribbed +
0.09 cm0.9 mm <br />9.0e-4 m <br /> (0.14 cm1.4 mm <br />0.0014 m <br />) +
hypogynous +  and subtending +
biconvex +  and trigonous +
Wet, relatively undisturbed habitats, especially flatwoods, ponds, seepage slopes, coastal prairies +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br />) +
globose +
subumbellate +  and capitate +
spreading +  and erect +
multi-ranked +, 2-ranked +, 3-ranked +  and alternate +
25cm +  and 100cm +
flat +  and v-shaped +
0.24 cm2.4 mm <br />0.0024 m <br /> (1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br />) +
with (1-)3-6(-30) bristles and/or scales +
Fruiting late spring–summer. +
2-3(-4)-carpellate +
antrorse +  and extrorse +
3 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York +
unequal +
3 +  and 5 +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
prominent +  and visible +
adventitious +
basal +  and proximal +
cylindric;compressed +
cylindric +
Illustrated +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.18 cm1.8 mm <br />0.0018 m <br />) +
10 +  and 40 +
oblong;linear-lanceoloid +
1.5mm;2.2mm +
1 (?) +  and 2 (?) +
septate +, hollow +  and solid +
compressed +, terete +  and trigonous +
papillate +
0.06 cm0.6 mm <br />6.0e-4 m <br /> (0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br />) +
2-3-fid +
0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
Cyperus robustus +, Cyperus virens subsp. drummondii +, Cyperus virens var. drummondii +  and Cyperus virens var. robustus +
Cyperus drummondii +
Cyperus subg. Pycnostachys +
species +
tuberous +, stoloniferous +  and rhizomatous +
herb +  and cespitose +