Cyperus echinatus

(Linnaeus) Alph. Wood

Class-book Bot. ed. s.n.(b), 734. 1861.

Common names: Teasel sedge
Illustrated
Basionym: Scirpus echinatus Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 1: 50. 1753
Synonyms: Cyperus ovularis (Michaux) Torrey Cyperus ovularis var. americanus Boeckeler Cyperus ovularis var. sphaericus Boeckeler Cyperus ovularis var. wolfii (Alph. Wood) Kükenthal Cyperus wolfii Kyllinga ovularis Mariscus ovularis
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 23. Treatment on page 182. Mentioned on page 149, 183.

Herbs, perennial, single-stemmed to loosely cespitose. Culms basally cormlike, trigonous, (15–) 30–100 cm × 0.5–3.5 mm, glabrous. Leaves flat to V-shaped, 10–65 cm × 3–9 mm, adaxial surface, margins minutely scabridulous. Inflorescences: spikes densely globose to globose-ovoid, 8–17 mm wide; rays 3–12, 2–12 cm, scaberous adaxially especially distally; rachis 4–8 mm; bracts (3–) 4–7, ascending at 30 (–45) °, flat, 5–35 cm × 2–9 mm; rachilla persistent, wings 0.5–0.7 mm wide. Spikelets 50–100, oblong-lanceoloid, ± terete-quadrangular, (3.5–) 4–7 × 1–1.4 mm; distal spikelet spreading or ascending; floral scales persistent, 3–5, appressed, stramineous to brownish, 4-ribbed laterally, oblongelliptic, 3.5–4.5 × 1–1.8 mm, membranous, apex entire or emarginate with mucro to 0.3 mm. Flowers: anthers 0.4–0.8 mm; styles 0.5–0.6 mm; stigmas 1 mm. Achenes brown, ± stipitate, oblong, (1.5–) 1.8–2.3 × 0.5–0.6 (–0.7) mm (1/2 length of floral scales), apex obtuse, surfaces puncticulate.


Phenology: Fruiting summer–early fall.
Habitat: Disturbed, sunny sites, in mesic places, well-drained soils
Elevation: 0–500 m

Distribution

V23 312-distribution-map.jpg

Ala., Ark., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Kans., Ky., La., Md., Miss., Mo., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Va., W.Va., Wis., West Indies

Discussion

The records for Rhode Island and Wisconsin are according to M. L. Horvat (1941); we have not seen specimens from those states.

Cyperus echinatus is usually recognized by its tight, nearly spheric spikes; it may occasionally be hard to distinguish from C. croceus and C. retrorsus. Compared to C. retrorsus, C. echinatus has larger spikelets and longer floral scales, anthers, and achenes. In contrast to C. echinatus, C. croceus has looser spikes, shorter, broader, greenish or yellowish floral scales, shorter, more ovoid achenes, and shorter anthers. Furthermore, C. echinatus is predominantly an inland species of roadsides, pastures, and other disturbed ground; C. retrorsus is primarily a coastal species and occurs in drier, sandier sites.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Cyperus echinatus"
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.18 cm1.8 mm <br />0.0018 m <br />) +
0.06 cm0.6 mm <br />6.0e-4 m <br /> (0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br />) +
0.18 cm1.8 mm <br />0.0018 m <br /> (0.23 cm2.3 mm <br />0.0023 m <br />) +
0.5mm;0.6mm +
0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br /> (0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br />) +
emarginate +  and entire +
Gordon C. Tucker* +, Brian G. Marcks* +  and J. Richard Carter * +
(Linnaeus) Alph. Wood +
shortened +
persistent +  and deciduous +
decurrent +
Scirpus echinatus +
w--shaped +  and keeled +
glumaceous +  and foliaceous +
2-ranked +  and arranged +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (35 cm350 mm <br />0.35 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
parallel +  and divergent +
terete +, rolled +  and plicate +
Teasel sedge +
15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br /> (100 cm1,000 mm <br />1 m <br />) +
scabridulous +
trigonous +
0.5mm;3.5mm +
ascending +  and spreading +
Ala. +, Ark. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Kans. +, Ky. +, La. +, Md. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Va. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +  and West Indies +
0–500 m +
stramineous +  and brownish +
0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br /> (0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br />) +
oblongelliptic +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.18 cm1.8 mm <br />0.0018 m <br />) +
hypogynous +  and subtending +
biconvex +  and trigonous +
Disturbed, sunny sites, in mesic places, well-drained soils +
subumbellate +  and capitate +
spreading +  and erect +
multi-ranked +, 2-ranked +, 3-ranked +  and alternate +
10cm +  and 65cm +
flat +  and v-shaped +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
scabridulous +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br />) +
with (1-)3-6(-30) bristles and/or scales +
Fruiting summer–early fall. +
2-3(-4)-carpellate +
antrorse +  and extrorse +
3 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
Class-book Bot. ed. s.n.(b), +
continuous +, articulate +, winged +  and wingless +
conspicuous +
unequal +
3 +  and 12 +
scaberous +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br />) +
adventitious +
basal +  and proximal +
cylindric;compressed +
cylindric +
Illustrated +
densely globose;globose-ovoid +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br />) +
0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
50 +  and 100 +
terete-quadrangular;oblong-lanceoloid +
1mm;1.4mm +
septate +, hollow +  and solid +
compressed +, terete +  and trigonous +
papillate +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (?) +
2-3-fid +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.06 cm0.6 mm <br />6.0e-4 m <br />) +
Cyperus ovularis +, Cyperus ovularis var. americanus +, Cyperus ovularis var. sphaericus +, Cyperus ovularis var. wolfii +, Cyperus wolfii +, Kyllinga ovularis +  and Mariscus ovularis +
Cyperus echinatus +
Cyperus subg. Cyperus +
species +
herb +  and cespitose +
0.5mm +  and 0.7mm +