Cyperus entrerianus

Boeckeler

Flora 61: 139. 1878.

IntroducedIllustrated
Synonyms: Cyperus luzulae var. entrerianus (Boeckeler) Barros
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 23. Mentioned on page 155.

Herbs, perennial, coarse; rhizomes (seldom collected) indurate, oblique, 5–12 mm wide, with fibrous brown floral scales, 1–5 cm. Culms 1–3, trigonous to roundly trigonous, (30–) 40–65 (–95) cm × (1–) 2–3 mm. Leaves (1–) 5–10, V-shaped, (10–) 30–45 (–70) cm × 3–7 mm. Inflorescences: heads loosely to densely globose-ovoid, (6–) 10–12 (–20) mm diam.; rays 6–10 (–12), 1–8 (–12) cm; 2d order rays 1–4, 5–15 (–23) mm; bracts (5–) 6–8 (–10), ascending at 45–60 (–75) °, V-shaped, (5–) 15–40 (–55) cm × (1–) 3–7 mm. Spikelets (1–) 30–50 (–65), greenish white, linear to broadly ellipsoid, flattened, 4–6.5 × 1.8–3.2 mm; floral scales (10–) 16–20 (–26), laterally clear, pale green, off-white, or light-brown, medially green or light-brown, laterally weakly 1-ribbed, medially 2-ribbed, basally 2-keeled, oblong-lanceolate, (1.2–) 1.4–1.6 (–1.8) × (0.7–) 0.8–1 mm, apex acute, mucronate, distally glabrous or scabridulous. Flowers: stamen 1; anthers ellipsoid, 0.6–0.7 mm, connective apex acute, 0.1–0.2 mm; styles 0.2–0.4 mm; stigmas 0.4–0.6 mm. Achenes brown, stipitate, ellipsoid to narrowly ellipsoid, broadly rounded or contracted basally, gradually tapered toward apex, 0.9–1.1 × 0.3–0.4 mm, stipe 0.1 mm, apex acute, surfaces finely reticulate.


Phenology: Fruiting summer.
Habitat: Roadside ditches, marshes
Elevation: 0–100 m

Distribution

V23 241-distribution-map.jpg

Introduced; Ala., Fla., Ga., La., Miss., Tex., Mexico, Central America (Nicaragua), South America

Discussion

Cyperus entrerianus is a recent introduction in the southern United States (earliest collection from Pensacola County, Florida, Brinker 413, MO in 1941). It has been confused with C. luzulae. The species that Boeckeler had first described 50 years earlier was accepted by G. Kükenthal (1935–1936). Cyperus entrerianus was accepted as a variety of C. luzulae by A. B. Ayers (1946); M. F. Denton (1978b) considered C. entrerianus a synonym of C. luzulae, stating that the features of these two taxa merged so completely throughout their geographic ranges that C. entrerianus could not be given specific status. Cyperus luzulae in the strict sense does not extend northward to North America.

Morphologic differences between Cyperus entrerianus and C. luzulae are as follows (G. C. Tucker 1994). Cyperus entrerianus has culms 40–75 cm; inflorescence bracts ascending at 45–60°; primary rays ascending at 45–60(–75)°; 2d order rays present; heads of spikelets loosely globose-ovoid, light greenish white to golden brown; rachilla dark red with stramineous scale scars; and scale apices acute. Cyperus luzulae has culms 20–40 cm; inflorescence bracts approximately horizontal; primary rays ascending at 15–30°; 2d order rays absent; heads of spikelets densely oblong to pyramidal, bright to dull white; rachilla green throughout; and scale apices rounded.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Cyperus entrerianus"
0.09 cm0.9 mm <br />9.0e-4 m <br /> (0.11 cm1.1 mm <br />0.0011 m <br />) +
tapered;rounded;ellipsoid;narrowly ellipsoid +
0.3mm;0.4mm +
ellipsoid +
0.06 cm0.6 mm <br />6.0e-4 m <br /> (0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br />) +
scabridulous +
Gordon C. Tucker* +, Brian G. Marcks* +  and J. Richard Carter * +
Boeckeler +
shortened +
persistent +  and deciduous +
decurrent +
w--shaped +  and keeled +
glumaceous +  and foliaceous +
2-ranked +  and arranged +
40 cm400 mm <br />0.4 m <br /> (55 cm550 mm <br />0.55 m <br />) +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br /> (40 cm400 mm <br />0.4 m <br />) +
v--shaped +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
parallel +  and divergent +
terete +, rolled +  and plicate +
65 cm650 mm <br />0.65 m <br /> (95 cm950 mm <br />0.95 m <br />) +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
40 cm400 mm <br />0.4 m <br /> (65 cm650 mm <br />0.65 m <br />) +
scabridulous +
trigonous +  and roundly trigonous +
2mm;3mm +
Ala. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, La. +, Miss. +, Tex. +, Mexico +, Central America (Nicaragua) +  and South America +
0–100 m +
2-ribbed +  and 1-ribbed +
0.16 cm1.6 mm <br />0.0016 m <br /> (0.18 cm1.8 mm <br />0.0018 m <br />) +
0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br /> (0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br />) +
light-brown +, green +, off-white +, pale green +, clear +  and brown +
0.14 cm1.4 mm <br />0.0014 m <br /> (0.16 cm1.6 mm <br />0.0016 m <br />) +
oblong-lanceolate +  and 2-keeled +
0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
hypogynous +  and subtending +
biconvex +  and trigonous +
Roadside ditches, marshes +
digitate +, glomerulate +  and umbellate +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
globose-ovoid +
subumbellate +  and capitate +
spreading +  and erect +
multi-ranked +, 2-ranked +, 3-ranked +  and alternate +
45 cm450 mm <br />0.45 m <br /> (70 cm700 mm <br />0.7 m <br />) +
30cm +  and 45cm +
v--shaped +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
with (1-)3-6(-30) bristles and/or scales +
Fruiting summer. +
2-3(-4)-carpellate +
antrorse +  and extrorse +
3 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2.3 cm23 mm <br />0.023 m <br />) +
unequal +
1 +  and 4 +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (?) +  and 1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br /> (?) +
adventitious +
basal +  and proximal +
cylindric;compressed +
cylindric +
Introduced +  and Illustrated +
greenish white +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.65 cm6.5 mm <br />0.0065 m <br />) +
30 +  and 50 +
flattened;linear;broadly ellipsoid +
1.8mm;3.2mm +
septate +, hollow +  and solid +
compressed +, terete +  and trigonous +
papillate +
0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br /> (0.06 cm0.6 mm <br />6.0e-4 m <br />) +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (?) +
2-3-fid +
0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br /> (0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br />) +
Cyperus luzulae var. entrerianus +
Cyperus entrerianus +
Cyperus subg. Pycnostachys +
species +
tuberous +, stoloniferous +  and rhizomatous +