Cyperus prolixus

Kunth in A. von Humboldt et al.

in A. von Humboldt et al., Nov. Gen. Sp. 1: 206. 1816.

Illustrated
Synonyms: Cyperus amplissimus Steudel
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 23. Treatment on page 167. Mentioned on page 146, 168.

Herbs, perennial; rhizomes 3–20 cm × 1–2 cm, indurate. Culms stoutly trigonous, thickened, 50–300 cm × 5–30 mm, basally indurate, glabrous. Leaves V-shaped, with cross ribs, 40–130 cm × 10–15 mm, margins and keel scabrid. Inflorescences: spikes appressed-ascending, narrowly cylindric, (2–) 3–45 mm × (4–) 7–10 mm; rays (5–) 9–12, 2–22 (–30) cm; 2d order rays distinctly flattened, 1–10 cm; 3d order rays flattened, 0.5–3 cm; rachis 2.5–4 cm; bracts (6–) 9–10, ascending at 45–75°, V or inversely W-shaped, (5–) 15–90 cm × 0.5–20 mm; rachilla persistent, wings 0.2–0.4 mm wide. Spikelets (4–) 10–35, appressed-ascending, compressed, linear, 7–12 (–15) × 0.6–1.2 mm; floral scales deciduous, 6–20, marginally clear, laterally brown, medially green, laterally 2–3-ribbed, medially 1-ribbed, oblongovate, (3.2–) 3.8–4.3 × 1.2–1.7 mm, apex spreading, acute to obtuse, mucronulate. Flowers: anthers 0.7–0.9 mm, connective apex bright red, oblong, to 0.1 mm; styles 0.8–1.3 mm; stigmas 2–3.3 mm. Achenes brown, sessile, narrowly ellipsoid, 1.8–2.5 × 0.8–1.3 mm, apex ± acute, not apiculate, surfaces puncticulate.


Phenology: Fruiting summer.
Habitat: Coastal marshes
Elevation: 0–10 m

Distribution

V23 271-distribution-map.jpg

La., Mexico, Central America, South America

Discussion

Cyperus prolixus produces large plants, similar in habit to C. giganteus and C. papyrus but easily distinguished by flattened rays.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

... more about "Cyperus prolixus"
0.18 cm1.8 mm <br />0.0018 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
ellipsoid +
0.8mm;1.3mm +
0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br /> (0.09 cm0.9 mm <br />9.0e-4 m <br />) +
Gordon C. Tucker* +, Brian G. Marcks* +  and J. Richard Carter * +
Kunth in A. von Humboldt et al. +
shortened +
persistent +  and deciduous +
decurrent +
w--shaped +  and keeled +
glumaceous +  and foliaceous +
2-ranked +  and arranged +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br />) +
15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br /> (90 cm900 mm <br />0.9 m <br />) +
w--shaped +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
parallel +  and divergent +
terete +, rolled +  and plicate +
50 cm500 mm <br />0.5 m <br /> (300 cm3,000 mm <br />3 m <br />) +
scabridulous +
trigonous +
indurate +
5mm;30mm +
La. +, Mexico +, Central America +  and South America +
0–10 m +
1-ribbed +  and 2-3-ribbed +
0.32 cm3.2 mm <br />0.0032 m <br /> (0.38 cm3.8 mm <br />0.0038 m <br />) +
green +, brown +  and clear +
0.38 cm3.8 mm <br />0.0038 m <br /> (0.43 cm4.3 mm <br />0.0043 m <br />) +
0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br /> (0.17 cm1.7 mm <br />0.0017 m <br />) +
hypogynous +  and subtending +
biconvex +  and trigonous +
Coastal marshes +
subumbellate +  and capitate +
spreading +  and erect +
multi-ranked +, 2-ranked +, 3-ranked +  and alternate +
40cm +  and 130cm +
v--shaped +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
with (1-)3-6(-30) bristles and/or scales +
Fruiting summer. +
2-3(-4)-carpellate +
antrorse +  and extrorse +
3 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
in A. von Humboldt et al., Nov. Gen. Sp. +
continuous +, articulate +, winged +  and wingless +
conspicuous +
22 cm220 mm <br />0.22 m <br /> (30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br />) +
unequal +
9 +  and 12 +
flattened +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
3cm +  and 20cm +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (?) +  and 2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (?) +
adventitious +
basal +  and proximal +
cylindric;compressed +
cylindric +
Illustrated +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (4.5 cm45 mm <br />0.045 m <br />) +
appressed-ascending +
cylindric +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
10 +  and 35 +
compressed +
0.6mm;1.2mm +
septate +, hollow +  and solid +
compressed +, terete +  and trigonous +
papillate +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.33 cm3.3 mm <br />0.0033 m <br />) +
2-3-fid +
0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br /> (0.13 cm1.3 mm <br />0.0013 m <br />) +
Cyperus amplissimus +
Cyperus prolixus +
Cyperus subg. Cyperus +
species +
tuberous +, stoloniferous +  and rhizomatous +
0.2mm +  and 0.4mm +