Cyperus refractus

Engelmann ex Boeckeler

Linnaea 36: 369. 1870, based on Cyperus refrofractus Engelmann ex Steudel, Syn. Pl. Glumac. 2: 47. 1855, not (Linnaeus) Torrey 1848.

IllustratedEndemic
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 23. Treatment on page 182. Mentioned on page 149, 181.

Herbs, perennial, cespitose, with inconspicuous, short rhizomes scarcely visible between culm bases. Culms basally cormlike, trigonous, 30–100 cm × 2–4 mm, glabrous. Leaves V-shaped to flat, 20–70 cm × 3–8 mm, adaxial surface, margins minutely scabridulous. Inflorescences: spikes loose, broadly ellipsoid to ovoid, 4–7 × 2–6 cm; rays 6–13 (–16), 4–25 cm, glabrous; rachis 1.5–3 cm; bracts 3–6, horizontal to ascending at 30°, flat, 5–35 cm × 2.5–6 mm; rachilla persistent, wings 0.4–0.5 mm wide. Spikelets (13–) 20–60 (–74), linear, ± terete, (11–) 13–25 (–28) × 1.2–1.5 mm; distal spikelets spreading or ascending; floral scales persistent, (2–) 3–6, stramineous, red-purple striate, laterally 3–5-ribbed, ovatelanceolate, 4.5–5.3 × 1.2–1.5 mm. Flowers: anthers 1–1.5 mm; styles 1.5 mm; stigmas 1.5 mm. Achenes brown to purplish brown, oblong-linear (5–6 times long as wide), 2.6–3 × 0.5–0.6 mm, base cuneate, apex obtuse, surfaces puncticulate.


Phenology: Fruiting summer (Jul–Aug).
Habitat: Sandy riverbanks, gravelly roadsides, pastures, disturbed places
Elevation: 20–300 m

Distribution

V23 310-distribution-map.jpg

Ala., Ark., D.C., Ga., Md., Mo., N.C., Pa., S.C., Tenn., Va., W.Va.

Discussion

Cyperus refractus is often mistaken for C. strigosus, which has shorter anthers (0.4–0.5 mm) and spreading, ± deciduous floral scales.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Cyperus refractus"
brown +  and purplish brown +
0.26 cm2.6 mm <br />0.0026 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
flattened;trigonous +
0.5mm;0.6mm +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
Gordon C. Tucker* +, Brian G. Marcks* +  and J. Richard Carter * +
Engelmann ex Boeckeler +
shortened +
persistent +  and deciduous +
cuneate +
w--shaped +  and keeled +
glumaceous +  and foliaceous +
2-ranked +  and arranged +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (35 cm350 mm <br />0.35 m <br />) +
horizontal +  and ascending +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
parallel +  and divergent +
terete +, rolled +  and plicate +
30 cm300 mm <br />0.3 m <br /> (100 cm1,000 mm <br />1 m <br />) +
scabridulous +
trigonous +
2mm;4mm +
ascending +  and spreading +
Ala. +, Ark. +, D.C. +, Ga. +, Md. +, Mo. +, N.C. +, Pa. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Va. +  and W.Va. +
20–300 m +
red-purple striate +  and stramineous +
0.45 cm4.5 mm <br />0.0045 m <br /> (0.53 cm5.3 mm <br />0.0053 m <br />) +
ovatelanceolate +
0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br /> (0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br />) +
hypogynous +  and subtending +
biconvex +  and trigonous +
Sandy riverbanks, gravelly roadsides, pastures, disturbed places +
subumbellate +  and capitate +
spreading +  and erect +
multi-ranked +, 2-ranked +, 3-ranked +  and alternate +
20cm +  and 70cm +
v-shaped +  and flat +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
scabridulous +
with (1-)3-6(-30) bristles and/or scales +
Fruiting summer (Jul–Aug). +
2-3(-4)-carpellate +
antrorse +  and extrorse +
3 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
continuous +, articulate +, winged +  and wingless +
conspicuous +
unequal +
6 +  and 13 +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (25 cm250 mm <br />0.25 m <br />) +
visible +  and inconspicuous +
adventitious +
basal +  and proximal +
cylindric;compressed +
cylindric +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
broadly ellipsoid;ovoid +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (2.8 cm28 mm <br />0.028 m <br />) +
1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
20 +  and 60 +
1.2mm;1.5mm +
septate +, hollow +  and solid +
compressed +, terete +  and trigonous +
papillate +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (?) +
2-3-fid +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (?) +
Undefined subg. Chlorocyperus +, Cyperus subg. Mariscus +  and Undefined subg. Papyrus +
Cyperus refractus +
Cyperus subg. Cyperus +
species +
tuberous +, stoloniferous +  and rhizomatous +
herb +  and cespitose +
0.4mm +  and 0.5mm +