Dodecatheon pulchellum

(Rafinesque) Merrill

J. Arnold Arbor. 29: 212. 1948,.

Illustrated
Basionym: Exinia pulchella Rafinesque Autik. Bot., 185. 1840
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 8. Treatment on page 279. Mentioned on page 268, 269, 271, 282, 285.

Plants (2–) 10–45 (–60) cm; scape usually glabrous, sometimes glandular-pubescent or puberulent. Caudices not obvious at anthesis; roots white; bulblets absent. Leaves (2–) 4–25 (–48) × 0.3–6 (–8.5) cm; petiole ± winged, sometimes wingless near base; blade oblanceolate to spatulate or ovate to nearly oval, base decurrent onto stem, usually gradually tapering to petiole, margins usually entire, rarely slightly toothed, sometimes undulate, surfaces glabrous or glandular-pubescent. Inflorescences 2–15 (–22) -flowered; bracts lanceolate, 2–15 mm, glabrous or glandular-pubescent or puberulent. Pedicels (0.7–) 1–5 (–7) cm, glabrous or glandular-pubescent or puberulent. Flowers: calyx green, usually purple-flecked, 4–8 mm, glabrous or glandular-pubescent or puberulent, tube 1.5–4 mm, lobes 5, 1–6 mm; corolla-tube maroon or yellow (fading to white) with reddish to magenta, thin, wavy ring, ring rarely absent, lobes 5, usually magenta to lavender, rarely white, (5–) 7–20 mm; filaments connate, tube yellow or maroon to dark purple or black, 0.7–3.6 × 1–3 mm; anthers 3–8.5 mm; pollen-sacs dark maroon to black (at least apically) or yellow (at least apically), usually with some pink, reddish, or maroon speckles or lines dorsally, connective maroon to black or yellow, smooth or longitudinally wrinkled; stigma not enlarged compared to style. Capsules tan to light-brown, often reddish-brown apically, sometimes speckled with red or maroon, valvate, cylindric-ovoid, 5–14 (–20) × 3–5 (–7) mm, glabrous or glandular-pubescent; walls thin, pliable. Seeds without membrane along edges.

Distribution

V8 567-distribution-map.gif

Alta., B.C., Man., N.W.T., Sask., Yukon, Alaska, Ariz., Calif., Colo., Idaho, Mont., N.Dak., N.Mex., Nebr., Nev., Oreg., S.Dak., Utah, Wash., Wyo., nw Mexico

Discussion

Varieties 7 (7 in the flora).

The variation within Dodecatheon pulchellum is substantial and, for the most part, each of the entities recognized here seems distinct although nearly all break down in one or more features; most seem to have intergraded with other entities in the past. Variety pulchellum is the most widespread and remains, even as treated here, quite variable. The depauperate, often uniflorous, high-elevation form, var. watsonii, is included in var. pulchellum; there is no difference except in overall size even on the East Humboldt and Ruby mountains of northeastern Nevada, the type location of var. watsonii. Widely disjunct populations assigned to var. monanthum remain problematic. The plants of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon differ only slightly from those found elsewhere in Oregon, including the Blue Mountains, where the type of var. monanthum was obtained. The southern Utah expression, while similar morphologically, displays a biogeographic pattern that is unique. A better understanding of the variation between the western and eastern phases of var. monanthum is needed.

The coastal var. macrocarpum has consistent morphological differences and a higher ploidy level (2n = 88, 132) compared with the more inland var. pulchellum (2n = 44). Whether or not the ploidy level difference is consistent remains to be shown.

The arid forms of Dodecatheon pulchellum exhibit remarkable morphological differences that require recognition (J. L. Reveal 2005). Hanging garden plants in Utah are recognized as var. zionense, following N. H. Holmgren (2005). Some populations assigned to this variety may ultimately prove to be merely large-leaved plants of either var. pulchellum or the Utah phase of var. monanthum. Zion shootingstar may owe both its large leaves and its glandular-puberulent pedicels and calyces to hybridization with D. redolens sometime in its evolutionary past, even though the latter taxon is no longer close geographically. Variety shoshonense, usually growing in moist, alkaline meadows, is found mainly in the northern Mojave Desert and the Intermountain West. The color pattern associated with the stamens differs from most other varieties of the species, suggesting a fundamental change associated with pollination and likely a closer relationship to var. cusickii (which also has yellow pollen sacs) than to var. pulchellum.

This taxon inadvertently was named Dodecatheon puberulum (Nuttall) Nuttall three years before the establishment of Exinia pulchella. To avoid nomenclatural disruptions, the basionym D. meadia var. puberulum Nuttall has been proposed for rejection (J. L. Reveal and K. N. Gandhi 2008).

Selected References

None.

Key

1 Pollen sacs usually maroon to black, if yellow, plants of the Great Plains in Canada or in the Colorado River basin with relatively large leaves and minutely glandular pedicels and calyces > 2
1 Pollen sacs usually yellow, at least apically; usually not of the Great Plains in Canada or if in the Colorado River basin then pedicels and calyces not minutely glandular > 4
2 Filament tubes usually maroon to black, sometimes yellow basally. Dodecatheon pulchellum var. monanthum
2 Filament tubes yellow, sometimes yellow basally and maroon distally > 3
3 Leaves (3-)4-17(-25) × 0.5-2.5(-4.5) cm; pedicels and calyces usually glabrous; common. Dodecatheon pulchellum var. pulchellum
3 Leaves (8-)10-48 × 1.5-8.5 cm; pedicels and calyces minutely glandular; rare. Dodecatheon pulchellum var. zionense
4 Plants glabrous > 5
4 Plants glandular, glandular-puberulent, or glandular-pubescent > 6
5 Anthers (4.5-)5-8.5 mm; leaves (3-)5-20(-35) × (0.5-)1.5-5 cm, blade elliptic or narrowly ovate to ovate; corolla tubes yellow; pollen sacs with pink to maroon speckles or lines abaxially; coastal or inland coastal montane regions and adjacent eastern valleys. Dodecatheon pulchellum var. macrocarpum
5 Anthers 3.5-5 mm; leaves 4-15(-22) × 0.5-3.5 cm, blade oblanceolate to elliptic or spatulate; corolla tubes yellow or white; pollen sacs yellow (not speckled or lined); moist, inland, alkaline meadows. Dodecatheon pulchellum var. shoshonense
6 Plants sparsely glandular-puberulent; pedicels and calyces usually glandular, sometimes sparsely glandular-puberulent; wc South Dakota and ne Wyoming. Dodecatheon pulchellum var. distolum
6 Plants densely glandular-pubescent or -puberulent; pedicels and calyces usually densely glandular, sometimes glandular-puberulent; s British Columbia s to Oregon, e to w Montana and nw Wyoming Dodecatheon pulchellum var. cusickii

"+timestube" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Dodecatheon pulchellum"
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.85 cm8.5 mm <br />0.0085 m <br />) +
James L. Reveal +
(Rafinesque) Merrill +
whitish +  and yellowish +
tapering +  and decurrent +
Exinia pulchella +
crenulate +  and denticulate +
oblanceolate;spatulate or ovate +
puberulent +, glandular-pubescent +  and glabrous +
lanceolate +
purple-flecked;green +
puberulent +, glandular-pubescent +  and glabrous +
not keeled +  and tubular +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
, +, speckled with red or speckled with maroon +, reddish-brown +, tan +  and light-brown +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br />) +
glandular-pubescent +  and glabrous +
cylindric-ovoid +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
not obvious +
minute +
wrinkled +  and smooth +
yellow with reddish +  and magenta +
Alta. +, B.C. +, Man. +, N.W.T. +, Sask. +, Yukon +, Alaska +, Ariz. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Idaho +, Mont. +, N.Dak. +, N.Mex. +, Nebr. +, Nev. +, Oreg. +, S.Dak. +, Utah +, Wash. +, Wyo. +  and nw Mexico +
operculate +  and capsular +
nectariferous +
2-15(-22)-flowered +
25 cm250 mm <br />0.25 m <br /> (48 cm480 mm <br />0.48 m <br />) +
6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br /> (8.5 cm85 mm <br />0.085 m <br />) +
4cm;25cm +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (?) +  and 6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br /> (?) +
maroon speckles +, reddish +  and pink +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
white +, usually magenta +  and lavender +
usually longer +
reflexed +  and spreading +
undulate +  and toothed +
tenuinucellate +  and bitegmic +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
puberulent +, glandular-pubescent +  and glabrous +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
wingless +  and winged +
dark maroon +  and black or yellow +
J. Arnold Arbor. +
reddish +, maroon +  and purple +
puberulent +, glandular-pubescent +  and glabrous +
alveolate +
globose +  and ovoid or quadrate +
Illustrated +
connate +  and distinct +
nearly +  and erect +
inflated +
not enlarged +
glandular-pubescent +  and glabrous +
Dodecatheon pulchellum +
Dodecatheon +
species +
maroon +  and dark purple or black +
0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br /> (0.36 cm3.6 mm <br />0.0036 m <br />) +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
1mm;3mm +
perennial +  and annual +
stoloniferous +  and rhizomatous +