Eleocharis parvula

(Roemer & Schultes) Link ex Bluff Nees

Comp. Fl. German. ed. 2, 1: 93. 1836.

Common names: Small spike-rush éléocharide naine
Illustrated
Basionym: Scirpus parvulus Roemer & Schultes in J. J. Roemer et al., Syst. Veg. 2: 124. 1817
Synonyms: Eleocharis pygmaea Torrey S. nanus Sprengel
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 23. Treatment on page 106. Mentioned on page 69, 105, 107, 109.

Tubers terminating rhizomes usually markedly J or horseshoe-shaped, body (apart from apical bud) oblong, 2–2.5 (–5) × 0.5–1 mm; tubers among culm bases straight, narrowly fusiform, 4–5 mm. Spikelets 2–4 × 1–2 mm, sometimes absent in deeper water; proximal scale 1/2 or more of spikelet length; floral scales 6–10 per spikelet, 1.4–2.7 mm, commonly entirely stramineous, apex rounded to subacute. Flowers: perianth bristles 6, stramineous, fairly stout to slender, usually equaling achene to slightly exceeding tubercle, sometimes unequal and some 1/2 of achene, very rarely rudimentary, minutely retrorsely spinulose; anthers 0.7–1.2 mm. Achenes stramineous, sometimes pale-brown, obovoid to obpyriform, thickly trigonous, angles distinct, faces concave to plane, rarely convex, 0.9–1.2 × 0.55–0.75 mm, apex tapered, smooth or faintly rough at 30X. Tubercles 0.1–0.2 × 0.15 mm. 2n = 10 (Europe).


Phenology: Fruiting summer–fall (north) or late winter–fall (far south).
Habitat: Brackish or saline, mostly coastal tidal marshes, shores, mud flats, swamps, ponds, ditches
Elevation: 0–600 m

Distribution

V23 161-distribution-map.jpg

B.C., N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.S., Que., Ala., Ark., Calif., Conn., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Kans., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Miss., Mo., N.J., N.Y., N.C., Ohio, Oreg., S.C., Va., Wash., Mexico, Central America (Nicaragua), Eurasia

Discussion

Plants without well-developed bristles are otherwise typical Eleocharis parvula. S.-O. Strandhede and R. M. T. Dahlgren (1968) provided a detailed description from Scandinavia; the mostly curved tubers of North American plants are differently shaped than the ovoid, mostly nearly straight tubers illustrated by them. Eleocharis parvula is very uncommon inland. Plants lacking spikelets and having rather broad culms with evident aerenchyma (E. parvula forma spongiosa Fassett) that are submerged in tidal zones closely resemble small plants of Sagittaria graminea. Eleocharis parvula has also been reported from North Dakota, South America, and Africa; I have not seen specimens. Plants without achenes or tubers cannot be reliably identified to species. Literature reports from Cuba, Mexico, and Venezuela may be based on specimens of E. coloradoensis.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"/2" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Eleocharis parvula"
pale-brown +  and stramineous +
rudimentary +
trigonous;obovoid;obpyriform +
unequal +
distinct +
0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br /> (0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br />) +
S. Galen Smith* +, Jeremy J. Bruhl* +, M. Socorro González-Elizondo* +  and Francis J. Menapace* +
(Roemer & Schultes) Link ex Bluff Nees +
flattened +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
shortened +
persistent +
enlarged +
Scirpus parvulus +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
glumaceous +  and foliaceous +
2-ranked +  and arranged +
ascending +  and appressed +
parallel +  and divergent +
terete +, rolled +  and plicate +
Small spike-rush +  and éléocharide naine +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (9 cm90 mm <br />0.09 m <br />) +
0.2mm;0.5mm +
B.C. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. +, N.S. +, Que. +, Ala. +, Ark. +, Calif. +, Conn. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Kans. +, La. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Oreg. +, S.C. +, Va. +, Wash. +, Mexico +, Central America (Nicaragua) +  and Eurasia +
0–600 m +
0.09 cm0.9 mm <br />9.0e-4 m <br /> (0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br />) +
convex;concave;plane +
0.055 cm0.55 mm <br />5.5e-4 m <br /> (0.075 cm0.75 mm <br />7.5e-4 m <br />) +
0.14 cm1.4 mm <br />0.0014 m <br /> (0.27 cm2.7 mm <br />0.0027 m <br />) +
hypogynous +  and subtending +
biconvex +  and trigonous +
Brackish or saline, mostly coastal tidal marshes, shores, mud flats, swamps, ponds, ditches +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
multi-ranked +, 2-ranked +, 3-ranked +  and alternate +
flattened +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
fairly stout +  and slender +
with (1-)3-6(-30) bristles and/or scales +
Fruiting summer–fall (north) or late winter–fall (far south). +
2-3(-4)-carpellate +
3 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
amplexicaulous +  and empty +
stramineous;medium brown or red brown or blackish brown +
Comp. Fl. German. ed. +
ascending +  and horizontal +
caudex-like +
0.01 cm0.1 mm <br />1.0e-4 m <br /> (0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br />) +
adventitious +
basal +  and proximal +
not evident +
2-keeled +
cylindric +
W1 +  and Illustrated +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
septate +, hollow +  and solid +
compressed +, terete +  and trigonous +
papillate +
2-fid +  and 3-fid +
Eleocharis pygmaea +  and S. nanus +
Eleocharis parvula +
Eleocharis sect. Parvulae +
species +
fusiform +  and horseshoe--shaped +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
0.1mm;0.2mm +
sunken +  and rudimentary +
stoloniferous +  and rhizomatous +