Eleocharis tortilis

(Link) Schultes

Mant. 2: 92. 1824.

IllustratedEndemic
Basionym: Scirpus tortilis Link Jahrb. Gewächsk. 1(3): 78. 1820
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 23. Treatment on page 92. Mentioned on page 68, 70, 91, 93.

Plants perennial, forming dense clumps, not stoloniferous, rhizomatous. Rhizomes usually present, caudexlike, ascending, 1 mm thick, hidden by crowded culms; internodes and scales not evident. Culms sometimes spirally twisted, usually minutely red-spotted at 30X, acutely triangular or sometimes elliptic, 15–70 cm × 0.3–0.5 (–1) mm, soft (to firm), often minutely granular at 10X. Leaves: distal leaf-sheaths persistent, stramineous to green, often minutely red-spotted, membranous to papery, apex subacute to narrowly acute, often with toothlike callus. Spikelets: basal spikelets absent; never proliferous, ovoid to lanceoloid or ellipsoid, terete, 4–12 × 2–4 mm, apex acute; proximal scale empty, deciduous, clasping 1/2 of culm, similar to floral scales; subproximal scale often empty; floral scales spiraled, 10–25, 5–6 per mm of rachilla, pale orangebrown, midrib regions broadly pale green to colorless, broadly ovate, 2–2.5 (–3.5) × 1.5–2 mm, central area and often flanks papery to cartilaginous or sometimes membranous, midrib evident, apex subacute (to rounded). Flowers: perianth bristles 4–6, bright brown, stout, equaling to slightly exceeding tubercle; spinules dense, retrorse, sharply acute; stamens 3; anthers 0.5–0.9 mm; styles 3-fid. Achenes medium brown or yellowish or greenish, obpyriform, obtusely (often obscurely) compressed trigonous, angles evident, 1.2–1.7 (–2.4) × 0.9–1.2 (–2.2) mm, apex constricted proximal to tubercle, coarsely cancellate at 10X, each face with 8–10 longitudinal rows of distinctly depressed, enlarged cells. Tubercles brown to greenish (or bone-white), pyramidal, trigonous or cross-section planoconvex, 0.3–0.7 (–1) × 0.3–0.6 (–0.9) mm, distinctly shorter or narrower than achene, apex acute, often acuminate.


Phenology: Fruiting spring (in south)–fall.
Habitat: Wet soil, freshwater, acidic places, seeps, bogs, ditches
Elevation: 10–100 m

Distribution

V23 130-distribution-map.jpg

Ala., Ark., Fla., Ga., La., Md., Miss., N.J., N.C., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Va.

Discussion

Eleocharis tortilis differs consistently from E. tuberculosa only in tubercle size. Most specimens of E. tortilis have culms that are sharply trigonous and no more than 0.5 mm wide. However, about two-thirds of the specimens of E. tortilis from Texas resemble E. tuberculosa in having culms that are elliptic or subelliptic in cross section and that sometimes reach 1 mm wide. Those elliptic-culmed plants may deserve taxonomic recognition. I have not seen voucher specimens for reports in the literature (H. K. Svenson 1937; M. L. Brown and R. G. Brown 1984) for Alabama (Mobile, 1800s), Delaware (1908), Maryland (1863–1878), and New York (Long Island, 1903).

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Eleocharis tortilis"
with longitudinal rows +, smooth +  and honeycomb-reticulate +
greenish +, yellowish +, brown +  and medium +
smooth +  and markedly sculptured +
trigonous;compressed;obpyriform +
0.17 cm1.7 mm <br />0.0017 m <br /> (0.24 cm2.4 mm <br />0.0024 m <br />) +
0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br /> (0.22 cm2.2 mm <br />0.0022 m <br />) +
0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br /> (0.17 cm1.7 mm <br />0.0017 m <br />) +
0.9mm;1.2mm +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.09 cm0.9 mm <br />9.0e-4 m <br />) +
constricted +
Jeremy J. Bruhl +  and S. Galen Smith +
(Link) Schultes +
flattened +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
shortened +
persistent +
enlarged +
Scirpus tortilis +
glumaceous +  and foliaceous +
2-ranked +  and arranged +
ascending +  and appressed +
toothlike +
parallel +  and divergent +
terete +, rolled +  and plicate +
depressed +
enlarged +
0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
0.06 cm0.6 mm <br />6.0e-4 m <br /> (0.09 cm0.9 mm <br />9.0e-4 m <br />) +
0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br /> (0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br />) +
distinctly shorter or narrower +, 0.3mm +  and 0.6mm +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
red-spotted +
15 cm150 mm <br />0.15 m <br /> (70 cm700 mm <br />0.7 m <br />) +
triangular +
0.3mm;0.5mm +
red-spotted +, stramineous +  and green +
Ala. +, Ark. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, La. +, Md. +, Miss. +, N.J. +, N.C. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +  and Va. +
10–100 m +
pale orangebrown +
papery +  and membranous +
hypogynous +  and subtending +
biconvex +  and trigonous +
Wet soil, freshwater, acidic places, seeps, bogs, ditches +
multi-ranked +, 2-ranked +, 3-ranked +  and alternate +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
flattened +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br />) +
with (1-)3-6(-30) bristles and/or scales +
Fruiting spring (in south)–fall. +
2-3(-4)-carpellate +
3 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
stramineous;medium brown or red brown or blackish brown +
caudex-like +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (?) +
adventitious +
basal +  and proximal +
not evident +
2-keeled +
cylindric +
Illustrated +  and Endemic +
stoloniferous +
proliferating +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br />) +
terete;ovoid;lanceoloid or ellipsoid +
septate +, hollow +  and solid +
compressed +, terete +  and trigonous +
papillate +
Eleocharis +
Eleocharis tortilis +
Eleocharis (sect. Eleocharis) ser. Tenuissimae +
species +
brown;greenish +
trigonous +  and pyramidal +
rhizomatous +  and not stoloniferous +