Eriogonum annuum

Nuttall

Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., n. s. 5: 164. 1835.

Common names: Annual wild buckwheat
Illustrated
Synonyms: Eriogonum annuum subsp. cymosum (Bentham) S. Stokes Eriogonum annuum subsp. hitchcockii (Gandoger) S. Stokes
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 5. Mentioned on page 326.

Herbs, 5–20 × 5–10 dm, grayish. Aerial flowering-stems slender, 4–10 (–15) dm, floccose to densely tomentose. Leaves: petiole (rosette) 0.3–1.2 cm, or petiole (cauline) 0.2–0.5 cm, tomentose to floccose; blade oblanceolate to oblong, 1–7 × 0.3–1.5 cm, densely tomentose abaxially, floccose adaxially not thickened and auriculate-subclasping proximally; margins entire or slightly revolute. Inflorescences 3–10 × 2–7 cm; bracts triangular, 1–4 mm. Peduncles 0.1–0.5 cm, tomentose to floccose. Involucres turbinate to campanulate, 2.5–4 × 2–3 mm, tomentose to floccose abaxially, glabrous adaxially; teeth 5–6, 0.4–1 mm. Flowers 1–2.5 mm; perianth white or cream to rose; tepals: those of outer whorl obovate, 1–2 × 0.9–1.5 mm, those of inner whorl narrowly ovate to oblong, 1.5–4 × 1.2–1.8 mm; stamens usually included, 1–2 mm. Achenes 1.5–2 mm. 2n = 40.


Phenology: Flowering Apr–Nov.
Habitat: Sandy flats, slopes, dunes, and banks, mixed grassland, oak and conifer woodlands
Elevation: (0-)100-1900(-2300) m

Distribution

V5 660-distribution-map.gif

Colo., Kans., Mont., Nebr., N.Mex., N.Dak., Okla., S.Dak., Tex., Wyo., Mexico (Chihuahua)

Discussion

Eriogonum annuum is widespread and common to locally abundant or even weedy on the Great Plains of the central United States and extreme north-central Mexico. It was collected in Sherburne County, Minnesota, in 1982, but that population did not persist. The species was recently found as an introduction at Sandy Hook in Monmouth County, New Jersey (Snyder & McArthur s.n., NY), but its fate there remains to be determined. Unfortunately, this weedy species recently has been introduced into northern Arizona as a roadside wild flower. C. L. Perez et al. (1998) have demonstrated that the seed bank can be rich in seeds of this species, but germination rates are low.

The Lakota people traditionally used the annual wild buckwheat as an aid in the treatment of sore mouths in children, seemingly in association with teething (D. J. Rogers 1980). Leaves were used to stain buffalo and deer hides by the Kiowa (P. A. Vestal and R. E. Schultes 1939). Vestal (1952) stated that the species was considered a “life medicine” by the Navajo (Diné) people; it was used also for protection against witches. It is likely that E. annuum was obtained by the Navajo through trade, but it might have been grown locally in historic times where the species recently has been reintroduced.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

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... more about "Eriogonum annuum"
included +  and exserted +
3-gonous +
usually red +  and cream or yellow +
oblong +  and ellipsoid or oval +
James L. Reveal +
Nuttall +
deciduous +  and persistent +
stipelike +
Eriogonum sect. Micrantha +
auriculate-subclasping +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
floccose +  and tomentose +
oblanceolate;oblong +
0.3cm;1.5cm +
not awn-tipped +
glandular +, pubescent +  and glabrous +
triangular +
not brittle +
tomentose +  and floccose +
scabrellous +
spreading +  and erect +
whorled +, opposite +  and alternate +
Annual wild buckwheat +
Colo. +, Kans. +, Mont. +, Nebr. +, N.Mex. +, N.Dak. +, Okla. +, S.Dak. +, Tex. +, Wyo. +  and Mexico (Chihuahua) +
(0-)100-1900(-2300) m +
unisexual +, , +  and bisexual +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
not disarticulating +  and solid +
decumbent to erect +  and prostrate +
unwinged +  and winged +
black +, red +, brown +  and yellowish +
exserted +  and included +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
spheroidal +, 4-gonous +, lenticular +, biconvex +, discoid +, 3-gonous +  and 2-gonous +
Sandy flats, slopes, dunes, and banks, mixed grassland, oak and conifer woodlands +
compact +  and open +
capitate +  and subcapitate +
cymelike +, paniclelike +, racemelike +  and spikelike +
connate +  and free +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
glabrous +, tomentose +  and floccose abaxially +
turbinate +  and campanulate +
nonmembranous +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
in whorls +, opposite +, alternate +  and rosulate +
marcescent +
persistent +
cauline +  and basal +
bractlike +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
revolute +  and entire +
not swollen +
orthotropous +
accrescent +
curved +  and straight +
tomentose;floccose +
erect to deflexed +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
cylindric +  and urceolate +
accrescent +
fleshy +, indurate +  and membranous +
with extrafloral nectaries +  and not articulate +
tomentose +  and floccose +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
Flowering Apr–Nov. +
homostylous +  and 3-carpellate +
Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc., n. s. +
, +  and solid +
slender;stout +
persistent +
Illustrated +
decumbent to erect +  and prostrate +
penicillate +, fimbriate +  and capitate +
deciduous +  and persistent +
? (?) +  and ? (?) +
coriaceous +  and membranous +
consisting of a series +  and tubular +
distinct +
erect;spreading or recurved +
Eriogonum annuum subsp. cymosum +  and Eriogonum annuum subsp. hitchcockii +
chambered +  and solid +
Slender (?) +  and Stout (?) +
Eriogonum annuum +
Eriogonum subg. Micrantha +
species +
emarginate +  and entire +
1/4 +  and 1/3 +
lobed +  and laciniate +
coriaceous +
0.04 cm0.4 mm <br />4.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
persistent +
membranous +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
annual +  and biennial +
floccose +  and tomentose +
3 +, 2 +  and 1 +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
0.12 cm1.2 mm <br />0.0012 m <br /> (0.18 cm1.8 mm <br />0.0018 m <br />) +