Fimbristylis caroliniana

(Lamarck) Fernald

Rhodora 42: 246. 1940.

Illustrated
Basionym: Scirpus carolinianus Lamarck in J. Lamarck and J. Poiret, Tabl. Encycl. 1: 142. 1791
Synonyms: Fimbristylis harperi Britton ex Small
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 23. Treatment on page 123. Mentioned on page 121, 124, 125, 130.

Plants perennial, to 150 (–200) cm, cespitose or not; rhizomes scaly, slender, elongate. Culms wandlike, at least 50 cm. Leaves nearly distichous, spreading to ascending, 1/2 length of culms, sheath margins ciliolate at junction with blade, backs smooth to pubescent; ligule present, usually complete; blades linear, 2–5 mm wide, flat to involute, margins scabridulous, surfaces mostly glabrous. Inflorescences: anthelae compound, dense or diffuse, mostly longer than broad; scapes wandlike, broadly linear, distally usually compressed, marginal ribs scabrid distally; longest primary involucral-bract exceeding or shorter than anthela. Spikelets pale-brown or redbrown, broadly ovoid, ellipsoid, or lanceoloid, 5–15 mm; fertile scales ovate, 3–4 mm, apex rounded, often puberulent distally, midrib excurrent as scabrid mucro or short cusp. Flowers: stamens 3; styles 2-fid, flat, fimbriolate. Achenes pale to deep brown, lenticular-obovoid, 1 mm, finely but definitely cancellate with 14–15 horizontally oriented lattices per side. 2n = 20, 30, 60.


Phenology: Fruiting summer–fall.
Habitat: Sands or sandy peats of slightly brackish to circumneutral marsh, interdunal swales and low sandy areas near coast
Elevation: 0–100 m

Distribution

V23 187-distribution-map.jpg

Ala., Del., Fla., Ga., La., Md., Miss., N.J., N.C., S.C., Tex., Va., Mexico, West Indies

Discussion

The tallest, coarsest plants of Fimbristylis caroliniana, formerly referred to as F. harperi Britton ex Small, are the most clonal of North American Fimbristyloids, some clones literally covering acres of sandy swale or beach.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Fimbristylis caroliniana"
60 +, 30 +  and 20 +
pale +  and deep brown +
reticulate-honeycombed +
lenticular-obovoid +
diffuse +  and dense +
mostly longer than broad +
puberulent +
Robert Kral +
(Lamarck) Fernald +
shortened +
smooth;pubescent +
deciduous +
enlarged +
Scirpus carolinianus +
flat +  and involute +
2mm;5mm +
glumaceous +  and foliaceous +
2-ranked +  and arranged +
ascending +  and appressed +
parallel +  and divergent +
terete +, rolled +  and plicate +
wand-like +
50 cm500 mm <br />0.5 m <br /> (?) +
Ala. +, Del. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, La. +, Md. +, Miss. +, N.J. +, N.C. +, S.C. +, Tex. +, Va. +, Mexico +  and West Indies +
0–100 m +
hypogynous +  and subtending +
biconvex +  and trigonous +
Sands or sandy peats of slightly brackish to circumneutral marsh, interdunal swales and low sandy areas near coast +
interrupted +  and continuous +
compound +  and simple +
erect +  and spreading +
1/2 length of culms +
scabridulous +
with (1-)3-6(-30) bristles and/or scales +
Fruiting summer–fall. +
2-3(-4)-carpellate +
3 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
adventitious +
basal +  and proximal +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
compressed +  and wand-like +
cylindric +
Illustrated +
redbrown +  and pale-brown +
single +, 1 +  and 80 +
lanceoloid;ellipsoid;lanceoloid;ellipsoid;ovoid +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
septate +, hollow +  and solid +
compressed +, terete +  and trigonous +
papillate +
fimbriolate +
Fimbristylis harperi +
Fimbristylis caroliniana +
Fimbristylis +
species +
not +  and rhizomatous +
plant +, not +  and cespitose +