Fimbristylis dichotoma

(Linnaeus) Vahl

Enum. Pl. 2: 287. 1805.

IntroducedIllustrated
Basionym: Scirpus dichotomus Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 1: 50. 1753
Synonyms: Fimbristylis annua var. diphylla (Retzius) Kükenthal Fimbristylis brizoides Nees & Meyen Fimbristylis diphylla subsp. diffusa D. B. Ward Fimbristylis glauca Vahl Fimbristylis polymorpha Boeckeler Scirpus diphyllus Retzius
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 23. Treatment on page 125. Mentioned on page 123, 126.

Plants perennial, cespitose, (10–) 20–80 cm, base thickened, not bulbous; rhizomes absent. Leaves nearly distichous, spreading to ascending, 1/2 length of culms; sheaths distally ciliate, backs mostly glabrous; ligule line of short hairs; blades narrowly linear, 2–3 mm wide, flat to broadly involute, scabridciliate, adaxially smooth or hirtellous. Inflorescences: anthelae compound, dense or open, ascending-branched, longer than broad; scapes slender, 1 mm wide, slightly compressed distally; proximalmost involucral-bract exceeding anthela. Spikelets pale drab brown to chestnut-brown, ovoidlanceoloid, 4–8 mm; fertile scales broadly oblong or ovate, 2 mm, acute to obtuse angled, glabrous, midrib reaching scale tip or excurrent, finely mucronate. Flowers: stamens 1–2; styles 2-fid, flat, fimbriate. Achenes white to brownish, lenticular, obovoid, 1–1.2 mm, cancellate, each face longitudinally with (5–) 10–12 ribs, connected by vertical rows of horizontally rectangular pits. 2n = 20, 30.


Phenology: Fruiting summer–fall, into winter southward.
Habitat: Moist, usually sandy waste areas, roadsides, low fields, and savannas
Elevation: 0–200 m (to 2000 m, tropics)

Distribution

V23 192-distribution-map.jpg

Introduced; Ala., Fla., Ga., La., Miss., N.C., S.C., Tex., Mexico, West Indies, Bermuda, Central America, South America, Eurasia, Africa, Atlantic Islands, Indian Ocean Islands, Pacific Islands, Australia

Discussion

Fimbristylis dichotoma is found in temperate to tropical regions worldwide. It is one of the most widespread and weedy species of Fimbristylis, unquestionably with many races and forms. The two commonest forms in the United States often occur in mixed populations, one sort with inflorescence branches more ascending, inflorescence dense, habit lower, and leaves broader; the other sort usually taller, inflorescence more sparse, branches more widely spreading, and leaves more ascending and narrower. The abundance of such plants both in regions where rice originated and in regions where rice is, or was, introduced, indicates an Asian origin for such weeds.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Fimbristylis dichotoma"
white +  and brownish +
reticulate-honeycombed +
obovoid;lenticular +
ascending-branched +, open +  and compound +
longer than broad +
Robert Kral +
(Linnaeus) Vahl +
shortened +
not bulbous +
deciduous +
enlarged +
Scirpus dichotomus +
hirtellous +  and smooth +
flat +  and broadly involute +
2mm;3mm +
glumaceous +  and foliaceous +
2-ranked +  and arranged +
ascending +  and appressed +
parallel +  and divergent +
terete +, rolled +  and plicate +
3-5-angled +, compressed +  and terete +
Ala. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, La. +, Miss. +, N.C. +, S.C. +, Tex. +, Mexico +, West Indies +, Bermuda +, Central America +, South America +, Eurasia +, Africa +, Atlantic Islands +, Indian Ocean Islands +, Pacific Islands +  and Australia +
0–200 m (to 2000 m, tropics) +
connected +
hypogynous +  and subtending +
biconvex +  and trigonous +
Moist, usually sandy waste areas, roadsides, low fields, and savannas +
interrupted +  and continuous +
compound +  and simple +
erect +  and spreading +
1/2 length of culms +
mucronate +
with (1-)3-6(-30) bristles and/or scales +
Fruiting summer–fall, into winter southward. +
2-3(-4)-carpellate +
rectangular +
3 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
adventitious +
basal +  and proximal +
angled;acute;obtuse +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (?) +
compressed +
slender +
cylindric +
W1 +, Introduced +  and Illustrated +
brown +  and chestnut-brown +
single +, 1 +  and 80 +
compressed;mainly ovoid;lanceoloid or cylindric +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
1 (?) +  and 2 (?) +
septate +, hollow +  and solid +
compressed +, terete +  and trigonous +
papillate +
fimbriate +  and 2-fid +
Fimbristylis annua var. diphylla +, Fimbristylis brizoides +, Fimbristylis diphylla subsp. diffusa +, Fimbristylis glauca +, Fimbristylis polymorpha +  and Scirpus diphyllus +
Fimbristylis dichotoma +
Fimbristylis +
species +
not +  and rhizomatous +
plant +  and cespitose +