Prunus maritima

Marshall

Arbust. Amer., 112. 1785.

Common names: Beach plum
EndemicIllustrated
Synonyms: Prunus gravesii Small P. maritima var. gravesii (Small) G. J. Anderson
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 9. Treatment on page 380. Mentioned on page 357, 360.

Shrubs, suckering, 10–25 dm, not thorny. Twigs with axillary end buds, densely hairy to glabrate. Leaves deciduous; petiole 3–11 mm, usually densely hairy, rarely hairy only on adaxial surface, usually eglandular, sometimes glandular distally, glands 1–2, discoid; blade elliptic, broadly elliptic, or obovate (orbiculate in gravesii clone), 3.5–7 × 2–4 cm, base cuneate to obtuse (rounded in gravesii clone), margins finely, usually singly, rarely doubly, serrulate, teeth sharp, usually eglandular, rarely glandular, apex acute to obtuse (rounded in gravesii clone), abaxial surface usually hairy, sometimes only on veins or glabrescent, adaxial rugose, glabrous. Inflorescences 2–4-flowered, umbellate fascicles. Pedicels 5–15 mm, hairy. Flowers blooming before leaf emergence; hypanthium campanulate, 2.5–3.5 mm, hairy externally; sepals erect to spreading, ovate, 1.5–3.5 mm, margins entire, sometimes 2-fid at apices, ciliate, surfaces hairy; petals white, oblong-obovate, 3–8 mm; ovaries glabrous. Drupes red, yellow, dark blue, or purplish black, glaucous, globose, 11–18 mm, glabrous; mesocarps fleshy; stones ovoid, slightly flattened. 2n = 16.


Phenology: Flowering Apr–Jun; fruiting Aug–Oct.
Habitat: Sand dunes, beaches, sandy fields, roadsides, coastal barrens
Elevation: 0–30 m

Distribution

V9 632-distribution-map.jpg

Conn., Del., Maine, Md., Mass., N.H., N.J., N.Y., Pa., R.I., Va.

Discussion

Prunus gravesii has been known from only a single locality since its description in 1897, and there may never have been more than a single, multistemmed individual. G. J. Anderson (1980) concluded that it is a mutant derivative of P. maritima. In the study by Anderson, it differed with statistical significance from other specimens of P. maritima for only 4 of 38 morphological features measured, and even for those four the range in values between the two taxa overlapped. Their leaf flavonoid chromatograms were identical. From a conservation standpoint it is of value to designate the orbiculate-leaved gravesii clone as a distinct taxonomic variety, for which the name P. maritima var. gravesii (Small) G. J. Anderson is available. Once listed by the state of Connecticut as endangered, it is now believed to be extinct in the wild. Throughout much of its original range P. maritima is threatened by oceanside development.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Prunus maritima"
glabrous +  and hairy +
Joseph R. Rohrer +
Marshall +
dark gray +, gray-brown +, reddish-brown +  and reddish +
compound +  and simple +
opposite +  and alternate +
cuneate +  and obtuse +
3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br /> (7 cm70 mm <br />0.07 m <br />) +
obovate +  and elliptic +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (18 cm180 mm <br />0.18 m <br />) +
? (?) +  and ? (?) +
2cm +  and 4cm +
free +  and distinct +
Beach plum +
solitary +, fascicles +, 2-flowered +  and umbellate +
Conn. +, Del. +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, Pa. +, R.I. +  and Va. +
not +  and aggregated +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
purplish black +, dark blue +, yellow +  and red +
glabrous +  and glaucous +
globose +
1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br /> (1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br />) +
0–30 m +
flattened +
hairy +  and glabrous +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
not +  and aggregated +
not +  and aggregated +
not +  and aggregated +
Sand dunes, beaches, sandy fields, roadsides, coastal barrens +
persistent +  and deciduous +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
umbellate +  and 2-4-flowered +
crassinucellate +
deciduous +
entire +  and serrulate +
inferior +  and superior +
biseriate +  and clustered +
collateral +  and apical +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
0 (?) +  and 4 (?) +
free +  and distinct +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br />) +
Flowering Apr–Jun +  and fruiting Aug–Oct. +
adnate +, free +, connate +  and distinct +
Arbust. Amer., +
not arillate +
free +  and distinct +
erect +  and spreading +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br />) +
Endemic +  and Illustrated +
free +  and distinct +
branched +  and simple +
1 +  and 20 +
flattened +  and ovoid +
deciduous +
distinct +
basal +, lateral +, subterminal +  and terminal +
not elongate +
Prunus gravesii +  and P. maritima var. gravesii +
Prunus maritima +
species +
inconspicuous +
densely hairy +  and glabrate +
shrub +  and suckering +
hairy +  and glabrous +