Prunus rivularis

Scheele

Linnaea 21: 594. 1848.

Common names: Creek or hog plumE
Endemic
Synonyms: Prunus munsoniana W. Wight & Hedrick P. reverchonii Sargent
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 9. Treatment on page 382. Mentioned on page 358, 361, 381, 383.

Shrubs or trees, usually suckering, 10–80 dm, thorny. Twigs with axillary end buds, glabrous. Leaves deciduous; petiole 7–21 mm, glabrous or sparsely hairy on adaxial surface, glandular distally, glands 1–4; blade lanceolate, oblong-lanceolate, or elliptic to narrowly elliptic, usually folded along midribs, 4–11 × 1.5–5 cm, base obtuse to rounded, margins singly to doubly crenate-serrulate, teeth blunt, glandular, glands inconspicuous, blackish, apex usually acuminate, sometimes acute, abaxial surface glabrous or ± hairy along midribs and veins, adaxial usually glabrous, rarely midribs hairy. Inflorescences 2–4-flowered, umbellate fascicles. Pedicels 3–15 mm, glabrous. Flowers blooming before or at leaf emergence; hypanthium campanulate, 2–3 mm, usually glabrous, rarely glabrate, externally; sepals broadly spreading to reflexed, oblong-ovate, 1.5–2.5 mm, margins glandular-toothed, abaxial surface glabrous or sparsely hairy, adaxial densely hairy at bases; petals white, obovate, 4–7 mm; ovaries glabrous. Drupes usually red, sometimes yellowish orange, with white dots, not or only slightly glaucous, globose, 12–25 mm, glabrous; mesocarps fleshy; stones ovoid to subglobose, ± flattened.


Phenology: Flowering Mar–Apr; fruiting Jul–Sep.
Habitat: Stream banks, roadside thickets, prairie hillsides, borders of woods
Elevation: 200–1000 m

Distribution

V9 636-distribution-map.jpg

Ala., Ark., Calif., Colo., Ga., Ill., Ind., Kans., Ky., La., Md., Miss., Mo., N.J., N.C., Ohio, Okla., Pa., Tenn., Tex.

Discussion

Prunus munsoniana is here placed in synonymy with P. rivularis, greatly expanding the range of the latter compared to its traditional treatment. Descriptions of P. munsoniana and P. rivularis differ mostly in size of the plants, leaves, and floral structures. As suggested by G. M. Diggs et al. (1999), P. munsoniana is simply a larger version of P. rivularis.

Evidence from analysis of DNA sequences of two nuclear genes in native plums (J. R. Rohrer et al. 2008) indicates that Prunus rivularis may be an allopolyploid. Three plants sequenced from Texas contained alleles seemingly derived from P. angustifolia on the one hand and P. hortulana (or P. murrayana) on the other. Further, two individuals determined as P. munsoniana, one each from Pennsylvania and Texas, had sequences very similar to those of P. rivularis.

Other specimens in herbaria labeled as Prunus munsoniana include hybrids between P. americana and P. angustifolia, as well as individuals of P. hortulana that bloom before the leaves emerge or that sucker freely.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Prunus rivularis"
hairy +  and glabrous +
hairy +  and glabrous +
Joseph R. Rohrer +
Scheele +
dark gray +, gray-brown +, reddish-brown +  and reddish +
compound +  and simple +
opposite +  and alternate +
obtuse +  and rounded +
elliptic +  and elliptic to narrowly +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (11 cm110 mm <br />0.11 m <br />) +
oblong-lanceolate +  and lanceolate +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (18 cm180 mm <br />0.18 m <br />) +
? (?) +  and ? (?) +
1.5cm +  and 5cm +
free +  and distinct +
Creek or hog plumE +
solitary +, fascicles +, 2-flowered +  and umbellate +
Ala. +, Ark. +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Kans. +, Ky. +, La. +, Md. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, N.J. +, N.C. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Pa. +, Tenn. +  and Tex. +
not +  and aggregated +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
yellowish orange +  and red +
glabrous +  and glaucous +
globose +
1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
200–1000 m +
flattened +
hairy +  and glabrous +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
not +  and aggregated +
not +  and aggregated +
not +  and aggregated +
inconspicuous +
Stream banks, roadside thickets, prairie hillsides, borders of woods +
persistent +  and deciduous +
glabrate +  and glabrous +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
umbellate +  and 2-4-flowered +
crassinucellate +
deciduous +
glandular-toothed +
inferior +  and superior +
biseriate +  and clustered +
collateral +  and apical +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
0 (?) +  and 4 (?) +
free +  and distinct +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br />) +
hairy +  and glabrous +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (2.1 cm21 mm <br />0.021 m <br />) +
Flowering Mar–Apr +  and fruiting Jul–Sep. +
adnate +, free +, connate +  and distinct +
not arillate +
free +  and distinct +
broadly spreading +  and reflexed +
oblong-ovate +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
free +  and distinct +
branched +  and simple +
1 +  and 20 +
flattened +, ovoid +  and subglobose +
deciduous +
distinct +
basal +, lateral +, subterminal +  and terminal +
not elongate +
Prunus munsoniana +  and P. reverchonii +
Prunus rivularis +
species +
inconspicuous +
tree +, suckering +  and shrub +
hairy +  and glabrous +