Rosa carolina

Linnaeus

Sp. Pl. 1: 492. 1753.

Common names: Carolina or pasture rose rosier de Caroline
Illustrated
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 9. Treatment on page 101. Mentioned on page 95, 96, 104.

Shrubs or subshrubs, forming scattered populations. Stems spreading and weak, sometimes erect, slender, 3–10 (–13) dm, openly branched; bark dull reddish-brown, glabrous; infrastipular prickles usually paired, erect, sometimes declined, rarely curved, flat, subulate, (2–) 3–9 × 1.5–3 mm, base glabrous, internodal prickles sparsely or densely mixed with aciculi, stipitate-glands and smaller internodal prickles. Leaves 5–10 (–16) cm; stipules 10–18 (–23) × 2–3 mm, auricles flared, 2–4 mm, margins entire or subserrate, eglandular or finely stipitate-glandular, surfaces glabrous, rarely puberulent, eglandular; petiole and rachis sometimes with pricklets 3 mm, aciculi few, glabrous, rarely pubescent, rarely stipitate-glandular; leaflets (3–) 5–7 (–9), terminal: petiolule 4–11 mm, blade ovate, elliptic, or lanceolate, 18–50 × 9–28 mm, membranous, base cuneate, margins 1–2+-serrate, teeth 8–14 (–18) per side, eglandular or gland-tipped, apex acute to acuminate, rarely obtuse, abaxial surfaces pale green, glabrous, rarely pubescent, eglandular or glandular, adaxial usually green, dull, rarely slightly lustrous, glabrous. Inflorescences corymbs, 1–3 (–6) -flowered. Pedicels erect, slender, 5–19 mm, glabrous, sparsely to ± densely stipitate-glandular, sometimes eglandular; bracts 2, lanceolate, 10–17 × 2–4 mm, margins entire, usually eglandular, surfaces with sparse hairs, stipitate-glandular. Flowers 3–5.5 cm diam.; hypanthium globose or ovoid, 4–6 (–8) × 3.5–5 (–8) mm, glabrous, ± densely to sparsely stipitate-glandular, sometimes eglandular, neck (0–) 0.5–1 × 2 mm; sepals reflexed, sometimes spreading, lanceolate, 10–22 × 2–3 mm, tip 2–10 × 0.5–1 mm, margins pinnatifid or entire, abaxial surfaces rarely puberulent, stipitate-glandular, rarely eglandular; petals single, pink, 15–24 × 13–19 mm; stamens 105; carpels 32–46, styles exsert 1 mm beyond stylar orifice (1.5–2 mm diam.) of hypanthial disc (4–5 mm diam.). Hips red or orange-red, globose or depressed-globose, rarely ellipsoid, 7–14 × 6–15 mm, fleshy, glabrous, densely to sparsely stipitate-glandular, sometimes eglandular, neck 0–0.5 × 5–6 mm; sepals early deciduous, spreading to reflexed. Achenes basal, 2–6 (–10), tan, 4–5 × 2.5–3 mm.

Distribution

V9 147-distribution-map.jpg

N.B., N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Ala., Ark., Conn., D.C., Del., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Mass., Md., Mich., Miss., Mo., N.C., N.H., N.J., N.Y., Nebr., Ohio, Okla., Pa., R.I., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Va., Vt., W.Va., Wis., ne Mexico

Discussion

Subspecies 3 (2 in the flora).

Rosa carolina is a polymorphic allotetraploid derived from diploids found in eastern North America (S. Joly et al. 2006). Two nothospecies representing presumptive secondary hybridization and introgression are R. ×medioccidentis W. H. Lewis (R. arkansana × R. carolina) in Iowa, eastern Kansas, and western Missouri, and R. ×novae-angliae W. H. Lewis (R. carolina × R. virginiana) of New England, infrequently south to the District of Columbia, nearby Virginia, and New Jersey (W. H. Lewis 2008).

The Menominee of Wisconsin once ate hips of Rosa carolina to treat gastrointestinal problems (H. I. Smith 1923).

Subspecies mexicoensis W. H. Lewis is found in the Sierra Madre Oriental of northeastern Mexico (Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas).

Selected References

None.

Key

1 Stems spreading, sometimes erect; prickles (rarely absent) infrastipular, infrequently mixed with sparse, shorter internodal prickles and aciculi not to apices, eglandular; most common in e United States. Rosa carolina subsp. carolina
1 Stems erect; prickles infrastipular, mixed with dense, shorter internodal, aciculi, and sparse stipitate glands to apices; epicenter in the Ozark Plateau and surrounding states. Rosa carolina subsp. subserrulata

"dm" is not declared as a valid unit of measurement for this property.

... more about "Rosa carolina"
eglandular +  and glandular +
stipitate-glandular +, puberulent +, pubescent +  and glabrous +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
2.5mm +  and 3mm +
lustrous +  and dull +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
Walter H. Lewis +, Barbara Ertter +  and Anne Bruneau +
Linnaeus +
reddish-brown +
exfoliating +
compound +  and simple +
opposite +  and alternate +
cuneate +
4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br /> (6.3 cm63 mm <br />0.063 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
lustrous +  and dull +
lanceolate +, elliptic +  and ovate +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br />) +
9mm +  and 28mm +
persistent +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.7 cm17 mm <br />0.017 m <br />) +
lanceolate +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
free +  and distinct +
Carolina or pasture rose +  and rosier de Caroline +
1-16(-50)-flowered +
rarely puberulent +  and tomentose +
rarely puberulent +  and tomentose +
N.B. +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Ala. +, Ark. +, Conn. +, D.C. +, Del. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Kans. +, Ky. +, La. +, Maine +, Mass. +, Md. +, Mich. +, Miss. +, Mo. +, N.C. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, Nebr. +, Ohio +, Okla. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Va. +, Vt. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +  and ne Mexico +
not +  and aggregated +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (5.5 cm55 mm <br />0.055 m <br />) +
not +  and aggregated +
eglandular +  and glandular +
urceolate +, pyriform +, oblong +, ellipsoid +, ovoid-obovoid +  and globose +
1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br /> (2.4 cm24 mm <br />0.024 m <br />) +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
orange-red +  and red +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (1.4 cm14 mm <br />0.014 m <br />) +
glabrous +  and densely sparsely stipitate-glandular +
ellipsoid +, depressed-globose +  and globose +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
conic +  and flat +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br />) +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br />) +
purplish black +, purplish red +, orange-red +  and red +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
stipitate-glandular +  and glabrous +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
leathery +  and fleshy +
0.35 cm3.5 mm <br />0.0035 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
1-16(-50)-flowered +
crassinucellate +
3-foliate +  and compound +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (16 cm160 mm <br />0.16 m <br />) +
deciduous +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
leathery +  and membranous +
petiolulate +  and subsessile +
elliptic +  and obovate more or less oblong obovate-elliptic lanceolate-elliptic or obovate-oblong +
entire +, 1-2+-serrate +  and subserrate +
stipitate-glandular +
entire +  and pinnatifid +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br />) +
distinct +
0mm +  and 0.5mm +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
inferior +  and superior +
clustered +, biseriate +  and superposed +
1-30(-50)-flowered +
2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br /> (3.5 cm35 mm <br />0.035 m <br />) +
stipitate-glandular +  and glabrous +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1.9 cm19 mm <br />0.019 m <br />) +
free +  and distinct +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2.4 cm24 mm <br />0.024 m <br />) +
1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br /> (1.9 cm19 mm <br />0.019 m <br />) +
stipitate-glandular +, pubescent +  and glabrous +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (?) +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br /> (1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br />) +
adnate +, free +, connate +  and distinct +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
declined +  and erect +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
stipitate-glandular +, pubescent +  and glabrous +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (?) +
not arillate +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
deciduous +
free +  and distinct +
spreading +  and reflexed +
lanceolate +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
rarely densely puberulent +  and tomentose +
Illustrated +
free +  and distinct +
flexuous +
procumbent +  and sprawling +
erect +  and spreading +
1 +  and 20 +
slender +
1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br /> (2.3 cm23 mm <br />0.023 m <br />) +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br />) +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br /> (0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br />) +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
persistent +
not elongate +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (?) +
stipitate-glandular +, puberulent +  and glabrous +
Rosa sect. Cinnamomeae +
Rosa carolina +
Rosa sect. Rosa +
species +
2mm +  and 10mm +
0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br /> (0.1 cm1 mm <br />0.001 m <br />) +
gland-tipped +  and eglandular +
8 +  and 14 +
inconspicuous +
enlarged +  and small +
rhizomatous +  and open +
subshrub +  and shrub +
small +  and miniature +