Sabal

Adanson ex Guersent

Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societe Philomatique 87: 205-206. 1804.

Common names: Palmetto
Etymology: derivation of name unknown
Synonyms: Inodes O. F. Cook
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 22. Treatment on page 107.

Plants dwarf, moderate, or tall, usually robust. Stems solitary, aerial or subterranean, covered with leaf-bases or clean, obscurely [strongly] ringed, becoming striate or smooth with age. Leaves few-to-many; sheath fibers soft; petiole split at base, completely unarmed; adaxial hastula well developed, obtuse to acuminate-triangular; costa present; blade weakly to strongly costapalmate; plication induplicate; segments lanceolate, basally connate to connate for 2 1/2 length [or in groups of 2 or 3 segments connate for nearly entire length], often bearing threadlike fibers between segments; apices acute or 2-cleft, stiff or lax. Inflorescences axillary within crown of leaves, paniculate, erect or arching beyond leaves [shorter than leaves], with 2 or 3 [–4] orders of branching; peduncular bracts 2–5, tightly clasping, inconspicuous; rachillae glabrous. Flowers bisexual, borne singly along rachillae, sessile, creamy white, fragrant; perianth 2-seriate; calyx cupulate; 3-lobed; petals 3, imbricate, elliptic, obovate or spatulate, alternate with outer whorl of stamens [basally connate], basally adnate to filaments; stamens 6 in 2 whorls; filaments narrowly triangular, basally connate; anthers dorsifixed, versatile; pistils 1, 1-carpellate, glabrous; nectaries 3, septal; ovules 3, but usually only one develops into seed; stigma minutely 3-lobed, papillose. Fruits drupes, berrylike, spheroid [oblate or pyriform] or lobed when more than 1 seed develops; exocarp black; mesocarp blackish, dry to fleshy; endocarp brown, membranaceous. Seeds 1–3, oblate, glossy; endosperm bony, homogeneous; embryo nearly apical, lateral or nearly lateral; eophyll undivided, linear-lanceolate. nx = 18.

Distribution

North America, Mexico, West Indies, Central America, South America

Discussion

Sabal flowers are bisexual and are pollinated mostly by native bees, especially of the families Halictidae and Megachilidae (S. Zona 1987, 1990), European honeybee, and wasps (Vespidae; P. F. Ramp 1989). Fruits are eagerly sought by both mammals (bears, deer, raccoons) and birds (S. Zona and A. Henderson 1989). Sabal minor, perhaps more than other species, is also dispersed by water (P. F. Ramp 1989; S. Zona 1990).

Species 16 (5 in the flora).

Key

1 Inflorescences with 2 (rarely 3 in basal branches) orders of branching (not counting main axis). > 2
1 Inflorescence with 3 orders of branching. > 3
2 Leaf strongly costapalmate and curved, bearing fibers between segments; inflorescence bushy and compact, ± long as leaves Sabal etonia
2 Leaf weakly costapalmate and little if at all curved, not bearing fibers between segments; inflorescence sparsely branched, much longer than leaves Sabal minor
3 Stems subterranean; leaves 6 or fewer Sabal miamiensis
3 Stems usually aerial; leaves more than 10. > 4
4 Fruit 8.1–13.9 mm diam. Sabal palmetto
4 Fruit 14.8–19.3 mm diam Sabal mexicana

"basally connate" is not a number.

... more about "Sabal"
obtuse +  and acuminate-triangular +
versatile +  and dorsifixed +
2-cleft (?) +  and Acute (?) +
Scott Zona +
Adanson ex Guersent +
3-lobed +  and cupulate +
Palmetto +
North America +, Mexico +, West Indies +, Central America +  and South America +
lateral +  and apical +
membranaceous +
linear-lanceolate +
derivation of name unknown +
thread-like +
triangular +
creamy white +
adnate +, connate +  and distinct +
fragrant +
berrylike +  and drupaceous +
apical +  and basal +
lobed +, spheroid +  and berrylike +
branched +  and spicate +
arching +  and erect +
smooth +  and striate +
2-pinnate +  and pinnate +
dry +  and fleshy +
alternate +  and imbricate +
bearing prickles or marginal teeth +  and unarmed +
ridged +, channeled +  and terete +
list +  and count +
v--shaped +  and tent--shaped +
germination +
Bulletin des Sciences, par la Societe Philomatique +
lockett1991a +, simpson1988a +  and zona1990a +
adventitious +
adhering to endocarp +  and free +
bearing prickles +  and unarmed +
connate +  and distinct +
covered with fibrous or prickly remains +  and smooth +
subterranean +  and aerial +
erect +  and creeping +
enlarged;massive;slender +
papillose +
connate +  and distinct +
Inodes +
Arecaceae (tribe Corypheae) subtribe Sabalinae +
unbranched +  and branched +
tall +  and dwarf +
unisexual +  and bisexual +