Schoenoplectus californicus

(C. A. Meyer) Soják

Cas. Nár. Mus., Odd. Prír. 140: 127. 1972.

Common names: Southern bulrush California bulrush giant bulrush tule
Illustrated
Basionym: Elytrospermum californicum C. A. Meyer Mém. Acad. Imp. Sci. St.-Pétersbourg, Ser. 6, Sci.-Math. 1: 201, plate 2, fig. 2. 1830
Synonyms: Scirpus californicus (C. A. Meyer) Steudel
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 23. Treatment on page 50. Mentioned on page 45, 46, 48.

Rhizomes 10–15 mm diam. Culms bluntly trigonous with nearly flat sides throughout to cylindric proximally, obscurely trigonous distally, 1–4 m × 4–10 mm, smooth. Leaves 3–4, basal, ca. 1/6 culm length; sheath fronts coarsely pinnate-fibrillose; blades 0–1, dorsiventrally flat, not more than 1/2 sheath length, distal blade to 20 × 2 mm. Inflorescences 3 or more times branched, branches to 21 cm; proximal bract usually erect, obtusely trigonous to subcylindric-channeled, 1–8 cm, margins often scabridulous. Spikelets 25–150+, solitary and in clusters of 2 or more, 5–11 × 3 mm; scales orangebrown, brightly lineolate-spotted, broadly oval, 2.5 × 2 mm, margins ciliolate, flanks veinless, apex rounded, notch 0.1–0.2 mm deep, awn not contorted, usually bent outward, 0.3 mm, sparsely scabrous. Flowers: perianth members 2–4, dark redbrown, thickly strap-shaped or trigonous, equaling achenes, fringed with brownish, soft, blunt hairs; anthers 1.5 mm; styles 2-fid. Achenes dark graybrown when ripe, unequally biconvex or planoconvex, ovoid to obovoid, 1.8–2.2 × 1.3 mm; beak 0.2 mm. 2n = 68.


Phenology: Fruiting spring–summer.
Habitat: Brackish to fresh marshes, shores, often emergent in water
Elevation: 0–1400 m

Distribution

V23 70-distribution-map.jpg

Introduced; Ala., Ariz., Ark., Calif., Fla., Ga., Kans., La., Miss., Nev., N.Mex., N.C., Okla., S.C., Tenn., Tex., Mexico, West Indies, Central America, South America (s to Argentina), South America (Chile), Pacific Islands (Cook Islands), Pacific Islands (Easter Island), Pacific Islands (Hawaii), New Zealand

Discussion

Schoenoplectus californicus forms sterile hybrids with S. acutus in California (see 1. S. tabernaemontani) (S. G. Smith 1995). It reportedly occurs in Pope County, Illinois, although I have not seen a specimen.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

"prolonged" is not a number.

0.18 cm1.8 mm <br />0.0018 m <br /> (0.22 cm2.2 mm <br />0.0022 m <br />) +
with transverse wavy ridges +  and rugose +
planoconvex ovoid;obovoid +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (?) +
S. Galen Smith +
(C. A. Meyer) Soják +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (?) +
shortened +
deciduous +
enlarged +
Elytrospermum californicum +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (?) +
rudimentary +
Not /2 (?) +, Not 1 (?) +, 0 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
glumaceous +  and foliaceous +
2-ranked +  and arranged +
ascending +  and appressed +
parallel +  and divergent +
terete +, rolled +  and plicate +
Southern bulrush +, California bulrush +, giant bulrush +  and tule +
dorsiventrally flat +  and c-shaped or laterally compressed +
2mm +  and 10mm +
100 cm1,000 mm <br />1 m <br /> (400 cm4,000 mm <br />4 m <br />) +
trigonous +
4mm;10mm +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
Ala. +, Ariz. +, Ark. +, Calif. +, Fla. +, Ga. +, Kans. +, La. +, Miss. +, Nev. +, N.Mex. +, N.C. +, Okla. +, S.C. +, Tenn. +, Tex. +, Mexico +, West Indies +, Central America +, South America (s to Argentina) +, South America (Chile) +, Pacific Islands (Cook Islands) +, Pacific Islands (Easter Island) +, Pacific Islands (Hawaii) +  and New Zealand +
0–1400 m +
hypogynous +  and subtending +
biconvex +  and trigonous +
Brackish to fresh marshes, shores, often emergent in water +
1-3 times branched or capitate or of 1 spikelet +
multi-ranked +, 2-ranked +, 3-ranked +  and alternate +
cauline +  and basal +
membranous +
scabridulous +
curved +  and straight +
trigonous +  and strap--shaped +
with (1-)3-6(-30) bristles and/or scales +
Fruiting spring–summer. +
2-3(-4)-carpellate +
3 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
obtusely trigonous;subcylindric-channeled +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
Cas. Nár. Mus., Odd. Prír. +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
adventitious +
lineolate-spotted +  and orangebrown +
deciduous +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (?) +
basal +  and proximal +
pinnate-fibrillose +
cylindric +
W1 +  and Illustrated +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br />) +
25 +  and 150 +
septate +, hollow +  and solid +
compressed +, terete +  and trigonous +
papillate +
Scirpus californicus +
Schoenoplectus californicus +
Schoenoplectus sect. Schoenoplectus +
species +
not +  and rhizomatous +