Schoenoplectus sect. Supini

(Chermezon) J. Raynal

Adansonia, n. s. 16: 130. 1976.

Basionym: Scirpus sect. Supini Chermezon Arch. Bot. Mém. 3: 193. 1929
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 23.

Plants annual or perennial, cespitose; rhizomes inconspicuous, very short, firm. Culms 0.5–1.5 mm wide. Leaves basal and cauline [all basal]. Inflorescences capitate or of 1 spikelet or with 1–2 branches [sometimes many branched]. Spikelets: scales with single midrib (sometimes with a few faint veins on flanks), apex entire, mucronate or short-awned. Flowers: perianth absent from spikelet flowers [present, Australian S. dissachanthus]; amphicarpic flowers present in some plants of all species. Achenes plane or biconvex, sometimes trigonous, with prominent transverse, wavy, often acute ridges [or sometimes smooth].

Distribution

North America, South America (Argentina), Eurasia, Africa (including Madagascar), Indian Ocean islands, Australia

Discussion

Species ca. 22 (3 in the flora).

Plants of this section grow mostly in Africa and Madagascar (J. Raynal 1976).

Schoenoplectus sect. Supini has been confused with sect. Actaeogeton. It can be distinguished by the lack of perianth in the spikelet flowers, the frequent occurrence of amphicarpy, and a cauline leaf in North American species (S. G. Smith and E. Hayasaka 2001, 2002). A perianth in amphicarpic flowers in sect. Supini (in five species in Africa, including S. erectus) was reported by J. Browning (1992), and subsequently perianth bristles were observed in amphicarpic flowers of all three species in North America (S. Galen Smith, pers. obs.). In some species in sect. Supini, including those in North America, many involucral bracts subtend flowers and apparently intergrade with enlarged scales at the spikelet bases. The widths of the strongly 3-dimensional, boat-shaped scales given here were measured on unflattened scales; the widths given by A. E. Schuyler (1969) are mostly much wider and apparently measured on flattened scales.

Selected References

None.

"prolonged" is not a number.

with transverse wavy ridges +  and rugose +
trigonous;biconvex;plane +
3 cm30 mm <br />0.03 m <br /> (?) +
S. Galen Smith +
(Chermezon) J. Raynal +
shortened +
deciduous +
enlarged +
Scirpus sect. Supini +
0.01 cm0.1 mm <br />1.0e-4 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
rudimentary +
glumaceous +  and foliaceous +
2-ranked +  and arranged +
ascending +  and appressed +
parallel +  and divergent +
terete +, rolled +  and plicate +
dorsiventrally flat +  and c-shaped or laterally compressed +
cylindric +  and strongly trigonous +
0.5mm;1.5mm +
North America +, South America (Argentina) +, Eurasia +, Africa (including Madagascar) +, Indian Ocean islands +  and Australia +
hypogynous +  and subtending +
biconvex +  and trigonous +
of 1 spikelet or with 1-2 branches +  and capitate +
multi-ranked +, 2-ranked +, 3-ranked +  and alternate +
cauline +  and basal +
membranous +
curved +  and straight +
with (1-)3-6(-30) bristles and/or scales +
2-3(-4)-carpellate +
3 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
Adansonia, n. s. +
inconspicuous +
acute +  and wavy +
adventitious +
deciduous +
basal +  and proximal +
2-keeled +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
1 +  and 100 +
septate +, hollow +  and solid +
compressed +, terete +  and trigonous +
papillate +
2-3-fid +
Schoenoplectus sect. Supini +
Schoenoplectus +
section +
not +  and rhizomatous +
perennial +  and annual +
plant +  and cespitose +