Carex echinata

Murray

Prodr. Stirp. Gott., 76. 1770.

Illustrated
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 23. Treatment on page 330. Mentioned on page 328, 329.

Culms 10–90 (–135) cm. Leaves 3–6 per culm; sheaths tight, inner band hyaline, 1.8–2.5 cm, apex concave, glabrous; ligules 0.6–2.5 (–4.5) mm, rounded to ± acute; blades plicate, 5–40 cm × 0.7–3.3 (–3.8) mm, widest leaf 1–3.3 (–3.8) mm wide. Inflorescences 0.7–7.8 cm; spikes (2–) 3–8; lateral spikes pistillate often with few staminate flowers proximally, 3–15.5 mm, sessile, staminate portion 7-flowered, to 8.2 mm, pistillate portion 3–32-flowered, 2.5–11 mm; basal 2 spikes 1.7–42 mm apart; terminal spike gynecandrous, 5–24 mm, staminate portion 2–17-flowered, 2–16.5 × 0.9–2 mm, pistillate portion 4–26-flowered, 2.6–9 × 4.9–9.1 mm. Pistillate scales ovate, (1.4–) 2.1–3.1 × 0.7–2.3 mm, apex acute to sometimes obtuse. Staminate scales ovatelanceolate to ovate, 1.3–3.8 × 0.8–1.7 mm, base clavate, apex acute. Anthers 0.8–1.6 (–2) mm. Perigynia spreading to reflexed, castaneous to dark-brown, 2–14-veined abaxially, 0–12-veined adaxially over achene, lanceolate to ovate, (2.65–) 2.9–4.75 × 0.8–2.1 mm, (1.7–) 1.8–3.2 (–3.6) times as long as wide; beak (0.85–) 0.95–2 mm, (0.4–) 0.45–0.86 length of body, serrulate, teeth (0–) 0.15–0.5 mm. Achenes ovatelanceolate to rhombic-ovate, 1.3–2.1 × 0.8–1.55 mm. 2n = 58.

Distribution

V23 588-distribution-map.jpg

B.C., N.B., N.S., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Alaska, Calif., Colo., Conn., D.C., Del., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Maine, Mass., Md., Mich., Minn., Mont., N.C., N.Dak., N.H., N.J., N.Y., Nev., Ohio, Oreg., Pa., R.I., Tenn., Utah, Va., Vt., W.Va., Wash., Wis., Wyo., Mexico, Central America, Eurasia

Discussion

Subspecies 3 (2 in the flora).

Selected References

None.

Key

1 Inflorescences lax to dense, usually 2.5–8 cm; distance between basal 2 spikes usually longer than basal spike. Carex echinata subsp. echinata
1 Inflorescences very dense, 1.2–2.5(–4) cm; distance between basal 2 spikes usually less than length of basal spike. > 2
2 Perigynia 2.9–3.6(–4) mm, often veinless over achene on adaxial surface; widest leaves 1–2.4(–2.7) mm wide; widespread. Carex echinata subsp. echinata
2 Perigynia (3.1)3.5–4.75 mm, 2–12-veined over achene on adaxial surface; widest leaves (1.7–)2.3–3.3(–3.8) mm wide; west coast. Carex echinata subsp. phyllomanica
... more about "Carex echinata"
0.13 cm1.3 mm <br />0.0013 m <br /> (0.21 cm2.1 mm <br />0.0021 m <br />) +
ovatelanceolate;rhombic-ovate +
much smaller +
0.8mm;1.55mm +
0.16 cm1.6 mm <br />0.0016 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br /> (0.16 cm1.6 mm <br />0.0016 m <br />) +
A. A. Reznicek +
Murray +
shortened +
white-hyaline +, hyaline +  and narrow +
clavate +
0.085 cm0.85 mm <br />8.5e-4 m <br /> (0.095 cm0.95 mm <br />9.5e-4 m <br />) +
0.45 length of body;0.86 length of body +
0.095 cm0.95 mm <br />9.5e-4 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
0.33 cm3.3 mm <br />0.0033 m <br /> (0.38 cm3.8 mm <br />0.0038 m <br />) +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (40 cm400 mm <br />0.4 m <br />) +
inconspicuous +
v--shaped +
0.7mm;3.3mm +
2-ranked +  and arranged +
ascending +  and appressed +
scale-like +  and leaflike +
parallel +  and divergent +
terete +, rolled +  and plicate +
0.8mm +  and 5mm +
round +  and trigonous +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (90 cm900 mm <br />0.9 m <br />) +
B.C. +, N.B. +, N.S. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.) +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Alaska +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Conn. +, D.C. +, Del. +, Idaho +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Maine +, Mass. +, Md. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mont. +, N.C. +, N.Dak. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, Nev. +, Ohio +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, Tenn. +, Utah +, Va. +, Vt. +, W.Va. +, Wash. +, Wis. +, Wyo. +, Mexico +, Central America +  and Eurasia +
hypogynous +  and subtending +
biconvex +  and trigonous +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (7.8 cm78 mm <br />0.078 m <br />) +
1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
sessile +  and pistillate +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (1.55 cm15.5 mm <br />0.0155 m <br />) +
multi-ranked +, 2-ranked +, 3-ranked +  and alternate +
basal +  and cauline +
rounded +  and more or less acute +
0.06 cm0.6 mm <br />6.0e-4 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
with (1-)3-6(-30) bristles and/or scales +
0-12-veined +  and 2-14-veined +
0.265 cm2.65 mm <br />0.00265 m <br /> (0.29 cm2.9 mm <br />0.0029 m <br />) +
castaneous +  and dark-brown +
(1.7-)1.8-3.2(-3.6) +
0.29 cm2.9 mm <br />0.0029 m <br /> (0.475 cm4.75 mm <br />0.00475 m <br />) +
spreading +  and reflexed +
0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br /> (0.21 cm2.1 mm <br />0.0021 m <br />) +
2-3(-4)-carpellate +
4-26-flowered +, pistillate +, 2-17-flowered +, staminate +, 3-32-flowered +  and 7-flowered +
0.26 cm2.6 mm <br />0.0026 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br />) +
0.49 cm4.9 mm <br />0.0049 m <br /> (0.91 cm9.1 mm <br />0.0091 m <br />) +
3 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
Prodr. Stirp. Gott., +
adventitious +
staminate +  and pistillate +
0.14 cm1.4 mm <br />0.0014 m <br /> (0.21 cm2.1 mm <br />0.0021 m <br />) +
0.13 cm1.3 mm <br />0.0013 m <br /> (0.38 cm3.8 mm <br />0.0038 m <br />) +
basal +  and proximal +
ovatelanceolate;ovate +
0.8mm;1.7mm +
cylindric +
Illustrated +
0.17 cm1.7 mm <br />0.0017 m <br /> (4.2 cm42 mm <br />0.042 m <br />) +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
septate +, hollow +  and solid +
compressed +, terete +  and trigonous +
papillate +
deciduous +
2-3(-4)-fid +
Carex echinata +
Carex sect. Stellulatae +
species +
staminate +  and pistillate +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (2.4 cm24 mm <br />0.024 m <br />) +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.015 cm0.15 mm <br />1.5e-4 m <br />) +
0.015 cm0.15 mm <br />1.5e-4 m <br /> (0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br />) +
plant +  and cespitose +
1mm +  and 3.3mm +