Carex echinata subsp. echinata

Common names: Carex étoilé
Illustrated
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 23.

Culms 10–90 (–135) cm. Leaves usually 0.7–2.7 (–3.3) mm wide; widest leaf 1–2.4 (–2.7) mm wide. Inflorescences lax to dense, 2.5–8 cm; distance between basal 2 spikes usually longer than the basal spike. Perigynia veined or not adaxially over achene, (2.6–) 2.9–3.6 (–4) mm, margins often serrulate.


Phenology: Fruiting late spring–early summer.
Habitat: Bogs, swamps, peaty or sandy shores of streams or lakes, wet meadows, usually in acidic soils
Elevation: 0–3200 m

Distribution

V23 589-distribution-map.jpg

St. Pierre and Miquelon, B.C., N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.), N.S., Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Alaska, Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Mont., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Oreg., Pa., R.I., Tenn., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo., Eurasia

Discussion

Carex echinata subsp. echinata is a complex, variable entity; plants of relatively sterile habitats from Newfoundland to Minnesota and south locally to the mountains of Tennessee and North Carolina have very narrow perigynia with the spikes either in congested heads or more laxly arranged and may be called C. echinata var. angustata (J. Carey) L. H. Bailey. Plants from the San Bernardino Mountains, Coast Ranges, Sierra Nevada, and some of the volcanic peaks in California, Oregon, and Washington tend to have very elongate inflorescences with widely spaced spikes and may be called C. echinata var. ormantha Fernald. In some areas these variants appear reasonably distinct, but over most of the species range intergrades between the extremes are frequent.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.

0.13 cm1.3 mm <br />0.0013 m <br /> (0.21 cm2.1 mm <br />0.0021 m <br />) +
ovatelanceolate;rhombic-ovate +
much smaller +
0.8mm;1.55mm +
0.16 cm1.6 mm <br />0.0016 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br /> (0.16 cm1.6 mm <br />0.0016 m <br />) +
A. A. Reznicek +
Murray +
shortened +
white-hyaline +, hyaline +  and narrow +
clavate +
0.085 cm0.85 mm <br />8.5e-4 m <br /> (0.095 cm0.95 mm <br />9.5e-4 m <br />) +
0.45 length of body;0.86 length of body +
0.095 cm0.95 mm <br />9.5e-4 m <br /> (0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br />) +
0.33 cm3.3 mm <br />0.0033 m <br /> (0.38 cm3.8 mm <br />0.0038 m <br />) +
5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br /> (40 cm400 mm <br />0.4 m <br />) +
inconspicuous +
v--shaped +
0.7mm;3.3mm +
2-ranked +  and arranged +
ascending +  and appressed +
scale-like +  and leaflike +
parallel +  and divergent +
terete +, rolled +  and plicate +
Carex étoilé +
0.8mm +  and 5mm +
round +  and trigonous +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (90 cm900 mm <br />0.9 m <br />) +
St. Pierre and Miquelon +, B.C. +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld.) +, N.S. +, Ont. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Sask. +, Alaska +, Calif. +, Colo. +, Conn. +, Del. +, D.C. +, Idaho +, Ill. +, Ind. +, Iowa +, Maine +, Md. +, Mass. +, Mich. +, Minn. +, Mont. +, Nev. +, N.H. +, N.J. +, N.Y. +, N.C. +, N.Dak. +, Ohio +, Oreg. +, Pa. +, R.I. +, Tenn. +, Utah +, Vt. +, Va. +, Wash. +, W.Va. +, Wis. +, Wyo. +  and Eurasia +
0–3200 m +
hypogynous +  and subtending +
biconvex +  and trigonous +
Bogs, swamps, peaty or sandy shores of streams or lakes, wet meadows, usually in acidic soils +
0.7 cm7 mm <br />0.007 m <br /> (7.8 cm78 mm <br />0.078 m <br />) +
1.8 cm18 mm <br />0.018 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
sessile +  and pistillate +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (1.55 cm15.5 mm <br />0.0155 m <br />) +
multi-ranked +, 2-ranked +, 3-ranked +  and alternate +
basal +  and cauline +
0.07 cm0.7 mm <br />7.0e-4 m <br /> (0.27 cm2.7 mm <br />0.0027 m <br />) +
rounded +  and more or less acute +
0.06 cm0.6 mm <br />6.0e-4 m <br /> (0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br />) +
with (1-)3-6(-30) bristles and/or scales +
not adaxially +  and veined +
0.265 cm2.65 mm <br />0.00265 m <br /> (0.29 cm2.9 mm <br />0.0029 m <br />) +
0.36 cm3.6 mm <br />0.0036 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
castaneous +  and dark-brown +
(1.7-)1.8-3.2(-3.6) +
0.29 cm2.9 mm <br />0.0029 m <br /> (0.475 cm4.75 mm <br />0.00475 m <br />) +
spreading +  and reflexed +
0.29 cm2.9 mm <br />0.0029 m <br /> (0.36 cm3.6 mm <br />0.0036 m <br />) +
0.08 cm0.8 mm <br />8.0e-4 m <br /> (0.21 cm2.1 mm <br />0.0021 m <br />) +
Fruiting late spring–early summer. +
2-3(-4)-carpellate +
4-26-flowered +, pistillate +, 2-17-flowered +, staminate +, 3-32-flowered +  and 7-flowered +
0.26 cm2.6 mm <br />0.0026 m <br /> (0.9 cm9 mm <br />0.009 m <br />) +
0.25 cm2.5 mm <br />0.0025 m <br /> (1.1 cm11 mm <br />0.011 m <br />) +
0.49 cm4.9 mm <br />0.0049 m <br /> (0.91 cm9.1 mm <br />0.0091 m <br />) +
3 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
Prodr. Stirp. Gott., +
adventitious +
staminate +  and pistillate +
0.14 cm1.4 mm <br />0.0014 m <br /> (0.21 cm2.1 mm <br />0.0021 m <br />) +
0.13 cm1.3 mm <br />0.0013 m <br /> (0.38 cm3.8 mm <br />0.0038 m <br />) +
basal +  and proximal +
ovatelanceolate;ovate +
0.8mm;1.7mm +
cylindric +
Illustrated +
2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
usually longer +
0.17 cm1.7 mm <br />0.0017 m <br /> (4.2 cm42 mm <br />0.042 m <br />) +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
septate +, hollow +  and solid +
compressed +, terete +  and trigonous +
papillate +
deciduous +
2-3(-4)-fid +
Carex echinata subsp. echinata +
Carex echinata +
subspecies +
staminate +  and pistillate +
0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br /> (2.4 cm24 mm <br />0.024 m <br />) +
0 cm0 mm <br />0 m <br /> (0.015 cm0.15 mm <br />1.5e-4 m <br />) +
0.015 cm0.15 mm <br />1.5e-4 m <br /> (0.05 cm0.5 mm <br />5.0e-4 m <br />) +
plant +  and cespitose +
1mm +  and 2.4mm +