Carex nigra

(Linnaeus) Reichard

Fl. Moeno-Francof. 2: 96. 1778.

Common names: Carex noir
Illustrated
Basionym: Carex acuta var. nigra Linnaeus Sp. Pl. 2: 978. 1753
Synonyms: Carex ×aquanigra B. Boivin Carex nigra var. strictiformis (L. H. Bailey) Fernald Carex vulgaris var. strictiformis L. H. Bailey
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 23. Treatment on page 394. Mentioned on page 379, 381, 382, 383, 384, 385, 390, 393.

Plants not cespitose. Culms acutely angled, 10–110 cm, scabrous. Leaves: basal sheaths redbrown; sheaths of proximal leaves glabrous, fronts lacking spots and veins, apex truncate; blades epistomic, 2–4.5 mm wide, adaxially papillose. Inflorescences: proximal bract subequal to inflorescence, 1.5–4 mm wide. Spikes erect; proximal 2–3 spikes pistillate, 1.2–4.2 cm × 3–5 mm, base obtuse or acute; terminal 1–2 spikes staminate. Pistillate scales dark purple-brown or black, shorter than perigynia, apex obtuse, awnless. Perigynia ascending, pale-brown with redbrown or black spots on apical 1/2, occasionally black on apical 1/2, 3–9-veined on each face, somewhat flattened, tightly enclosing achenes, stipitate, ellipsoid or obovoid, 2–3.7 × 1.1–2.1 mm, somewhat leathery, dull, base truncate, distended, apex obtuse or rounded, papillose; stipe 0.1–0.3 mm; beak redbrown or black, 0.1–0.2 mm, orifice scabrous. Achenes not constricted, whitish iridescent, base adnate to perigynium. 2n = 83, 84, 85.


Phenology: Fruiting Jul–Aug.
Habitat: Wet meadows
Elevation: 0–200 m

Distribution

V23 702-distribution-map.jpg

Greenland, St. Pierre and Miquelon, N.B., Nfld. and Labr., N.S., P.E.I., Que., Conn., Maine, Mass., Mich., N.H., N.Y., Vt., Europe, w. Asia

Discussion

Plants of Carex nigra are variable in height and degree of development of rhizomes, but are not separable into distinct taxa. Much less morphologic or ecotypic variation appears to exist in North America than in Europe (A. O. Chater 1980). In North America, C. nigra hybridizes with C. stricta, C. aquatilis, C. paleacea, C. subspathacea, and C. salina. It is a member of the C. acuta subgroup, based on the veined, stipitate perigynia distended by the base of the achenes; it differs from the related sympatric C. lenticularis by the rhizomatous habit, dark green leaves, black scales and perigynia, and short inflorescence bract.

Carex nigra appears to be declining in abundance in southern New England as a result of changing patterns of land use and the loss of wet fields and pastures.

Selected References

None.

Lower Taxa

None.
... more about "Carex nigra"
85 +, 84 +  and 83 +
whitish iridescent +
biconvex +
not constricted +
papillose +
black spots +  and redbrown +
Lisa A. Standley +, Jacques Cayouette +  and Leo Bruederle +
(Linnaeus) Reichard +
shortened +
not +  and fibrous +
distended +, acute +  and obtuse +
Carex acuta var. nigra +
bidentate +  and emarginate +
0.01 cm0.1 mm <br />1.0e-4 m <br /> (0.02 cm0.2 mm <br />2.0e-4 m <br />) +
papillose +
m--shaped +  and v--shaped +
2mm;4.5mm +
glumaceous +  and foliaceous +
2-ranked +  and arranged +
ascending +  and appressed +
scale-like +  and leaflike +
parallel +  and divergent +
terete +, rolled +  and plicate +
Carex noir +
redbrown +  and brown +
10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br /> (110 cm1,100 mm <br />1.1 m <br />) +
prophyllate +, subsessile +, pedunculate +  and staminate +
Greenland +, St. Pierre and Miquelon +, N.B. +, Nfld. and Labr. +, N.S. +, P.E.I. +, Que. +, Conn. +, Maine +, Mass. +, Mich. +, N.H. +, N.Y. +, Vt. +, Europe +  and w. Asia +
0–200 m +
open +, pistillate +  and staminate +
hypogynous +  and subtending +
biconvex +  and trigonous +
Wet meadows +
multi-ranked +, 2-ranked +, 3-ranked +  and alternate +
basal +  and cauline +
with (1-)3-6(-30) bristles and/or scales +
stipitate +  and 3-9-veined +
black +  and pale-brown +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.37 cm3.7 mm <br />0.0037 m <br />) +
0.11 cm1.1 mm <br />0.0011 m <br /> (0.21 cm2.1 mm <br />0.0021 m <br />) +
Fruiting Jul–Aug. +
2-3(-4)-carpellate +
3 (?) +  and 1 (?) +
short-sheathing +, sheathless +  and leaflike +
0.15 cm1.5 mm <br />0.0015 m <br /> (0.4 cm4 mm <br />0.004 m <br />) +
Fl. Moeno-Francof. +
adventitious +
black +  and dark purple-brown +
basal +  and proximal +
2-keeled +
ladder-fibrillose +  and veined +
cylindric +
Illustrated +
staminate +  and pistillate +
1.2 cm12 mm <br />0.012 m <br /> (4.2 cm42 mm <br />0.042 m <br />) +
0.3 cm3 mm <br />0.003 m <br /> (0.5 cm5 mm <br />0.005 m <br />) +
1 (?) +  and 3 (?) +
septate +, hollow +  and solid +
compressed +, terete +  and trigonous +
papillate +
0.01 cm0.1 mm <br />1.0e-4 m <br /> (?) +  and 0.03 cm0.3 mm <br />3.0e-4 m <br /> (?) +
deciduous +
2-3(-4)-fid +
Carex ×aquanigra +, Carex nigra var. strictiformis +  and Carex vulgaris var. strictiformis +
Carex nigra +
Carex sect. Phacocystis +
species +
, +  and staminate +
plant +  and not cespitose +