Crataegus (sect. Coccineae) ser. Apricae

J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 1: 173. 2007.

Endemic
Treatment appears in FNA Volume 9. Treatment on page 610. Mentioned on page 493, 528, 529, 569, 588, 611, 617, 618, 619, 632.

Shrubs or trees, 20–70 (–120) dm, often with main trunk dominant. Stems: trunk bark seldom recorded, black, dark gray, or brownish, ± rimose; branches spreading rather than pendent; twigs slightly flexuous (± straight in 124. C. frugiferens), new growth glabrous or pubescent, 1-year old reddish to dark or very dark-brown, rarely tan to chestnut, older gray or gray-brown, sometimes dark purple-brown; thorns on twigs usually few, straight to slightly recurved, 1–2-years old brown, purple-brown, deep chestnut-brown to shiny, dark-brown, black, or dark gray-brown, slender or ± fine, 1.5–4 cm. Leaves: petiole length 15–50% blade, glabrous or pubescent, usually sessile-glandular (sometimes stipitate-glandular in C. frugiferens); blade light to mid green, broadly ovate or rhombic-elliptic to obtrullate or obovate or ± orbiculate, 1.5–5 cm, thin to coriaceous, base ± cuneate, lobes 0 or 1–3 per side, sinuses shallow (sometimes apiculi) or obscure, more rarely moderately deep, lobe apex obtuse to acute, margins finely glandular-crenate to glandular-serrate, venation craspedodromous, veins 3–5 (5–7 in C. frugiferens) per side, apex acute to obtuse, abaxial surface glabrous, rarely pilose young, veins sparsely hairy, adaxial usually hairy young, glabrescent, sometimes glabrous. Inflorescences (1 or) 2–6 (or 7) -flowered, panicles, sometimes highly reduced, larger convex; branches glabrous or ± pubescent; bracteoles caducous (persistent in C. ignava), linear to narrowly oblong, small, membranous (to herbaceous in C. ignava), margins sessile-glandular, sometimes stipitate-glandular. Flowers 13–25 mm diam.; hypanthium glabrous or ± pubescent; sepals narrowly triangular, much shorter than petals, margins glandular-serrate; stamens 10 or 20 (12–15), anthers pink to purple, sometimes ivory or cream; styles (2 or) 3–5. Pomes orange-red to red, sometimes green-mottled, suborbicular to orbicular, sometimes pyriform or broadly ellipsoid, 8–15 (–18) mm diam., glabrous or sparsely hairy; flesh ± mealy; sepals sessile, usually reflexed, sometimes recurved or spreading, nonaccrescent; pyrenes (2 or) 3–5.

Distribution

se United States

Discussion

Species 12 (12 in the flora).

Series Apricae is essentially southern Appalachian and adjacent piedmont in distribution, with some extension into the coastal plain in northern Florida and South Carolina.

Series Apricae is one of the two series to emerge from the ashes of ser. Flavae (Loudon) Rehder and results from the loss of the latter’s type species to ser. Intricatae. The species included here belong to groups Euflavae (minus C. flava), Ignavae, Segnes, Sororiae, and Visendae of Beadle. Series Apricae differs from the other Flavae-descendent series, Lacrimatae, in fruiting later (thus not a 'summer haw'), by lacking a conspicuously weeping habit, in the bracteoles generally being stipitate-glandular (compared to sessile-glandular), and in many taxa having anthocyanic anthers (unknown in ser. Lacrimatae except in sporadic individuals).

In spite of the generally unambiguous nature of ser. Apricae, many species are neither particularly common nor well-marked, which makes the taxonomy difficult. It is possible that many of the taxa in this series arose by hybridization, perhaps with a ser. Lacrimatae parent when they would have flexuous twigs. Crataegus ignava and C. frugiferens are the most distinct species. Interesting, yet rare, forms include some not seen recently such as unnamed members of a rich Crataegus flora collected by Curtiss from the Augusta, Georgia, sandhills and C. calva Beadle from Alabama. Little is known about breeding systems and chromosome numbers, there being only one triploid count (N. Talent and T. A. Dickinson 2005), that from a cultivated specimen of uncertain identity.

Selected References

None.

Key

1 Twigs straight or slightly flexuous; leaf blades 5–8 cm; stamens 13–16, anthers purple; pomes dull orange, ± pyriform-oblong. Crataegus flava (ser. Intricatae)
1 Twigs ± flexuous (±straight in C. frugiferens); leaf blades 1.5–5 cm; stamens 10 or 20 (12–15), anthers pink, purple, or red, sometimes ivory or cream; pomes orange, reddish orange, russet, yellow, or orange-red to red, suborbicular to orbicular, sometimes pyriform or broadly ellipsoid > 2
2 Twigs ± straight; leaf blades ovate to obovate or rhombic-ovate, margins serrate; petioles sometimes stipitate-glandular; inflorescence branches appressed-scabrous. Crataegus frugiferens
2 Twigs ± flexuous; leaf blades elliptic-ovate or ovate to rhombic-ovate or trullate, obovate to obtrullate or rhombic-obovate, ± elliptic-rhombic to rhombic or oblong to orbiculate, margins finely serrate, crenate-serrate, finely or obscurely crenate-serrate, or ± crenate; petioles sessile-glandular; inflorescence branches glabrous, glabrate, pubescent, ± pilose (hairy), or tomentose > 3
3 Leaf blades broadly elliptic to orbiculate or broadly rhombic-elliptic to ± suborbiculate, lobes 1–3 per side, small, neat, and regular, sinuses shallow, lobe apices ± acute > 4
3 Leaf blades elliptic-ovate or ovate to rhombic-ovate or trullate, obovate to obtrullate or rhombic-obovate, ± elliptic-rhombic to rhombic or broadly elliptic to oblong, lobes 0 or 1–3 per side, sometimes obscure, small to large, sinuses shallow to moderately deep, lobe apices ± obtuse, acute, or acuminate > 5
4 Flowers 15 mm diam.; inflorescence branches tomentose; anthers ivory, pink-purple, or red. Crataegus sororia
4 Flowers 20–25 mm diam.; inflorescence branches glabrous or ± pilose; anthers cream or purple. Crataegus mira
5 Stamens 10 or 12–15(or 20) > 6
5 Stamens 20 > 8
6 Leaf blades 1.5–4 cm, widest near midpoint, rhombic-elliptic or broadly elliptic, lobes 0 or apiculi, margins crenate or serrate; inflorescence branches ± densely pilose; flowers 13–15 mm diam.; anthers ivory to cream. Crataegus aprica
6 Leaf blades (2–)3–5 cm, widest towards base, elliptic-ovate or rhombic-ovate, lobes 2 or 3 per side, short and acute or obscure, margins serrulate; inflorescence branches glabrous or pilose; flowers 16–20 mm diam.; anthers pink or dark purple > 7
7 Lobes 3 per side, sinuses short to moderately deep, lobe apices acute to acuminate; inflorescence branches glabrous; stamens 10. Crataegus alleghaniensis
7 Lobes 2 or 3 per side, obscure to short, sinuses ± shallow, lobe apices acute; inflorescence branches pilose; stamens 12–15(or 20). Crataegus extraria
8 Inflorescence branches pubescent; anthers ivory. Crataegus annosa
8 Inflorescence branches glabrous, pubescent, or glabrate to ± pilose or hairy; anthers pink to purple > 9
9 Leaf blades ± ovate or ovate-rhombic, 2.5–3.5 cm, lobes 2 or 3 per side, sinuses moderately deep, lobe apices acute; inflorescence branches glabrous; 1-year old twigs tan to shiny chestnut; 1–2-year old thorns black. Crataegus ignava
9 Leaf blades ± rhombic or rhombic-elliptic to broadly elliptic, oblong, ± ovate, or ± obovate, 1.5–5 cm, lobes 0, or 1 or 2 per side, sometimes with only a series of 1–3 subterminal apiculi per side, sinuses shallow to moderately deep, lobe apices acute, subacute, or ± obtuse; inflorescence branches glabrate, pubescent to moderately pilose, hairy, or pubescent; 1-year old twigs dark brown; 1–2-year old thorns purple-brown to very dark brown or dark gray-brown > 10
10 Leaf blades rhombic, lobes 1(or 2) per side, well defined, lobe apices acute to ± obtuse; sepal margins subentire to glandular on barely discernible teeth; pomes slightly pyriform. Crataegus egregia
10 Leaf blades broadly elliptic or oblong to elliptic-rhombic, rhombic or narrowly to broadly obovate or obovate, trullate to narrowly ovate or rhombic-ovate, lobes 0, or 1 or 2 per side, obscure, sometimes with only a series of 1–3 subterminal apiculi per side, lobe apices ± acute to obtuse; sepal margins glandular-serrate; pomes usually suborbicular, sometimes pyriform > 11
11 Leaf blades broadly elliptic or oblong to obovate, apices subacute to acute, often ± cuspidate, lobes 0, sometimes with only a series of 1–3 subterminal apiculi per side. Crataegus segnis
11 Leaf blades ± rhombic, trullate to ± obovate, or narrowly ovate to rhombic-ovate or broadly ovate, sometimes oblong, apices acute to subobtuse, lobes 0, or 1 or 2 per side > 12
12 Leaf blades rhombic-elliptic to rhombic-obovate or trullate, 1.5–3 cm. Crataegus visenda
12 Leaf blades narrowly ovate to rhombic-ovate or broadly ovate, sometimes oblong or ± obovate, 2.5–5 cm. Crataegus leonensis
pilose +  and glabrous +
glabrous +, glabrescent +  and hairy +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
cream +, ivory +, pink +  and purple +
James B. Phipps +
Loudon +
thin-exfoliating +  and corrugated +
compound +  and simple +
opposite +  and alternate +
cuneate +
8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br /> (12 cm120 mm <br />0.12 m <br />) +
broadly ovate +  and suborbiculate +
1 cm10 mm <br />0.01 m <br /> (8 cm80 mm <br />0.08 m <br />) +
linear +  and narrowly oblong +
rather than pendent +  and spreading +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
adnate +  and distinct +
crowded +, scattered +  and alternate +
se United States +
not +  and aggregated +
1.3 cm13 mm <br />0.013 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
unisexual +  and bisexual +
not +  and aggregated +
not +  and aggregated +
yellow +  and red or purplish +
0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br /> (2 cm20 mm <br />0.02 m <br />) +
dark purple-brown +, gray-brown +, gray +, older +, rarely tan +  and chestnut +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
constricted +
0.2 cm2 mm <br />0.002 m <br /> (0.6 cm6 mm <br />0.006 m <br />) +
crassinucellate +
deciduous +
craspedodromous +
stipitate-glandular +
glandular-crenate to glandular-serrate +  and glandular-crenate +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (5 cm50 mm <br />0.05 m <br />) +
inferior +  and superior +
biseriate +  and clustered +
collateral +  and basal +
larger +  and reduced +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (2.5 cm25 mm <br />0.025 m <br />) +
elliptic +  and circular +
0 (?) +  and 4 (?) +
free +  and distinct +
post-mature +
pubescent +  and glabrous +
adnate +, free +, connate +  and distinct +
dark gray-brown +  and russet +
exfoliating +  and corrugated +
pruinose +
green-mottled +, orange-red +  and red +
0.8 cm8 mm <br />0.008 m <br /> (1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br />) +
hairy +  and glabrous +
ellipsoid +, pyriform +, suborbicular +  and orbicular +
J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas +
not arillate +
persistent +
free +  and distinct +
spreading +, recurved +  and reflexed +
triangular +
nonaccrescent +
1-50-flowered +  and few-leaved +
deep +  and shallow +
free +  and distinct +
branched +  and simple +
persistent +
distinct +
exsert +  and lateral +
elongate +
glabrous +  and tomentose +
Crataegus (sect. Coccineae) ser. Apricae +
Crataegus sect. Coccineae +
6 cm60 mm <br />0.06 m <br /> (10 cm100 mm <br />0.1 m <br />) +
dark gray-brown +, black +, dark-brown +, chestnut-brown +, purple-brown +  and brown +
straight +
slender +
1.5 cm15 mm <br />0.015 m <br /> (4 cm40 mm <br />0.04 m <br />) +
craspedodromous +  and gland-tipped +
inconspicuous +
less erect +  and oblique +
1 +  and several +
flexuous +
determinate +
3 +  and 5 +
tree +  and shrub +